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    25 January 2024, Volume 33 Issue 1
    Circulation control characteristics of retina and choroid 
    Huang Houbin
    2024, 33(1):  1-8.  doi:10.13281/j.cnki.issn.1004-4469.2024.01.001
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    The circulation mechanisms of retina and choroid are different in various aspects including autoregulation, neuro-regulation, humor regulation and neurovascular regulation, which is closely associated with the development of retinochoroidal ischemic diseases. The circulation characteristics of retina and choroid also have many imparities. It is usually considered that central retina artery predominantly contributes the blood supply of retina but in fact choroid does. This article details above topics so as to be able to explore the pathogeneses of retinochoroid vasculopathies in depth. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2024, 33: 1-8)
    Clinical characteristics analysis of 29 patients with oscillopsia presenting initially to ophthalmology with visual swaying
    Cui Shilei, Peng Jingting, Kong Xiuyun, Wu Jing, Wang Jiawei, Jiang Hanqiu
    2024, 33(1):  9-14.  doi:10.13281/j.cnki.issn.1004-4469.2024.01.002
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    Objective To conduct a retrospective analysis of the characteristics of visual swaying, types of abnormal eye movements, and relevant etiological factors and treatment outcomes in patients presenting with oscillopsia. Design Retrospective case series. Participants 29 patients with visual swaying initially presenting at the Department of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, from January 2019 to January 2023. Methods Clinical data, including features of visual swaying, characteristics of video-nystagmography (VNG), brain MRI findings, etiological diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes, were retrospectively reviewed. Main Outcome Measures Clinical manifestations, VNG, brain MRI, and treatment outcomes. Results All 29 patients exhibited oscillopsia and visual related dizziness, with 27 cases (93.1%) presenting with binocular symptoms, 18 cases with vertical oscillopsia, 8 cases with horizontal oscillopsia, and 1 case with seesaw (vertical and torsional mixed type) oscillopsia. Two cases (6.9%) presented with monocular symptoms, including torsional or horizontal oscillopsia. 27 cases (93.1%) had persistent symptoms, while 2 cases (6.9%) had episodic symptoms. VNG revealed that the direction of visual swaying was consistent with abnormal eye movement, 23 cases (79.3%) showed nystagmus, including 17 cases with downbeat nystagmus, 3 cases with periodic alternating nystagmus, 2 cases with acquired pendular nystagmus, and 1 case with pendular seesaw nystagmus. Three cases (10.3%) exhibited saccadic intrusion, 2 cases (6.9%) had bilateral vestibular dysfunction, and 1 case (3.4%) had superior oblique myokymia. All patients underwent at least one MRI examination, with 21 cases (87.5%) showing positive abnormal changes in cerebellar tonsils or optic nerves. Fourteen cases (48.3%) demonstrated improvement with different targeted treatments, such as surgical decompression or gabapentin, baclofen, or clonazepam. Conclusion Patients with oscillopsia commonly present with vertical and horizontal binocular visual swaying phenomena. Among etiology is varied, its characteristics are related to the type of abnormal eye movement, acquired nystagmus is predominant. Early recognition and understanding of visual symptoms and signs contribute to the prompt diagnosis and treatment. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2024, 33: 9-14)
    One year efficacy of penetrating canaloplasty without viscoelastic for primary open-angle glaucoma
    Liu Yacong, Zhou Wenzong, Liang Situo, Sun Jun, Zhao Hua, Wu Xintong, Wang Yali, Li Xiwei
    2024, 33(1):  16-20.  doi:10.13281/j.cnki.issn.1004-4469.2024.01.003
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    Objective To observe the efficacy and safety of penetrating canaloplasty without viscoelastic for primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). Design Prospective case series. Participants 25 patients (35 eyes) with POAG penetrating canaloplasty without viscoelastic at Cangzhou Aier Eye Hospital from December 2021 to June 2022 were treated. Methods Record preoperative and postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP), number of anti-glaucoma drugs, LogMAR best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), average retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, vertical C/D, average gangline cell layer (GCL) thickness in the macular area, intraoperative and postoperative complications. Time points of follow-up were arranged at 1 day, 7 days, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year after the surgery. Complete success was defined as IOP ≤21 mmHg without any glaucoma medications. Qualified success was defined as IOP≤21 mmHg with glaucoma medications (within 2 types). Main Outcom Measures Rate of circumferential catheterization of the canal, IOP, surgical success rate, and intraoperative and postoperative complications. Results 33 eyes (94.3%) achieved the 360 degrees’catheterization of the canal without viscoelastic. All patients completed a 12 month follow-up, with an average preoperative IOP of (25.8±7.7) mmHg. The postoperative IOP at 1 day, 7 days, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year were (14.1±6.1), (13.3±4.9), (14.8±4.4), (15.0±4.8), (15.2±4.0) and (14.7±3.6) mmHg, respectively. There were statistically significant differences between the preoperative and postoperative IOP (all P<0.001). The complete success rate and qualified success rate at 1 year after surgery were 90.9% (30/33) and 97.0% (32/33), respectively. Conclusion The penetrating canaloplasty without viscoelastic is safe and effective for the treatment of POAG. Which has a significant short-term effect on reducing IOP. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2023, 32: 16-20)
    Comparing of macular retinal thickness parameters at acute attack with after intraocular pressure control in primary acute angle-closure glaucoma
    Lu Ping, Lv Aiguo, Wu Jian, Guo Lixia, Guo Li, Zhang Zhihong, Cui Hongyu, Li Xiaoyan, Fan Sujie
    2024, 33(1):  23-27.  doi:10.13281/j.cnki.issn.1004-4469.2024.01.004
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     Objective  To measure macular parameters in patients with acute primary angle closure glaucoma (APACG) and investigate the differences in these parameters between the acute phase and the long-term period after intraocular pressure (IOP) control by using of optical coherence tomography (OCT). Design Retrospective case series. Participants Thirty patients with APACG acute attack in Handan Eye Hospital from December 2016 to December 2017 were enrolled. The affected eyes were used as the study group (33 eyes), and the contralateral eyes were used as the control group (27 eyes). Methods IOP, OCT, visual acuity, and slit lamp examination were performed at acute attack stage and 6 months after IOP control. The differences of retinal thickness parameters in macular OCT images at acute attack eyes from after IOP control were compared, and compared with the contralateral eyes. The image features of the OCT topographic map in the macular region were observed and analyzed. The macular central foveal thickness, retinal thickness, retinal volume, and average thickness of the scanned area were calculated using system software. Main Outcome Measures IOP and retinal thickness parameters. Results The mean intraocular pressure was (52.6±8.2) mmHg at the acute attack, and (14.2±4.1) mmHg at 6 months after treatment. Compared with the control of IOP, the thickness of the outer quadrant of the macular area, the inferior inner ring and the temporal retina at the acute attack were thicker (all P<0.05); the retinal volumes were increased (all P<0.05) and the average thickness of the scanning area was thickened (P=0.009). There was no significant difference in the macular thickness of the contralateral eye between the acute attack period and 6 months after IOP control (P=0.750). The mean retinal thickness of the attack eyes was thicker than that of the contralateral eyes during the acute attack period (P=0.001), and the mean retinal thickness of the attack eyes was thinner than that of the contralateral eyes at 6 months after IOP control (P=0.001). Conclusion Compared with that after IOP control, the macular retinal thickness becomes thicker in the acute stage of APACG, and the macular retinal thickness becomes thinner after 6 months of APACG. It is suggested that the macular retinal ganglion cells atrophy and thinning due to acute ocular hypertension injury. It is suggested to reduce the intraocular pressure as soon as possible to reduce the damage to the macular retina. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2024, 33: 23-27)
    Patterns of persistent submacular fluid after scleral buckling and its relationship with visual prognosis
    Chen Yanyun, Zhou Dan, Li Lei, He Lei, Yu Jie, Shi Xiangyu
    2024, 33(1):  29-34.  doi:10.13281/j.cnki.issn.1004-4469.2024.01.005
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    Objective To investigate the different patterns of persistent submacular fluid (PSF) in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) after scleral buckling and its relationship with visual prognosis. Design Retrospective case series. Participants From June 2020 to February 2023, 50 cases (50 eyes) of RRD patients who was undergone the scleral buckling and successful retinal reattachment at one time and were observed PSF after 1 month after the sugrey. Methods The surgery followed the rules of minimal scleral buckling design. PSF was defined as that submacular fluid was not absorbed for more than one month. All patients were followed up at 1 day, 3 days, 7 days, one month, and every month after operation until the PSF was absorbed completely. Visual acuity, intraocular pressure and OCT were checked at every visit. Based on the PSF pattern in OCT at 1 month after the surgery, patients were divided into 3 groups:  single discrete bleb of fluid group, multiple blebs of fluid group, and confluent fluid group. Main Outcome Measures PSF patterns, PSF absorption time, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA, LogMAR). Results Among 50 cases (50 eyes), 6 eyes(12%) were in single discrete bleb of fluid pattern group, 12 eyes (24%) were in multiple blebs of fluid pattern group and 32 eyes (64%) were in confluent fluid pattern group. During follow-up, 9 eyes changed from multiple blebs pattern to single discrete bleb pattern, 25 eyes changed from confluent fluid pattern to multiple blebs pattern and single discrete bleb pattern. There were no significant differences among the 3 groups in preoperative BCVA ≥0.05 (χ2=2.13, P=0.345), high myopia(χ2=1.64,P=0.441), duration of disease within 1 month (χ2=2.10,P=0.350), drainage (χ2=0.44,P=0.803) and surgical method segmental combined encircling episcleral buckles (χ2=2.47,P=0.291). The PSF absorption time was 4.50 (2.75, 5.25) months, 6.00 (3.00, 8.75) months, and 7.50 (4.25, 9.75) months in single discrete bleb of fluid pattern, multiple blebs of fluid pattern and confluent fluid pattern, respectively, without significant difference (H=5.26,P=0.072). The BCVA (LogMAR) at final visit was 0.20 (0.10, 0.33), 0.10 (0.00, 0.45), 0.15 (0.10, 0.50) in single discrete bleb of fluid pattern, multiple blebs of fluid pattern, and confluent fluid pattern group, respectively, without significant difference (H=1.16,P=0.560). At final visit, there was no significant difference in the continuity of the outer retinal ellipsoid zone among 3 groups (χ2=0.87, P=0.648). Conclusion Different patterns of PSF after scleral buckling can change during follow-up, and the multiple blebs pattern is an intermediate process between confluent fluid pattern and single discrete bleb pattern. There is no difference among different patterns of PSF in the absorption time, visual prognosis and the continuity of the outer retinal ellipsoid zone. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2024, 33: 29-34)
    Risk factors of recurrence after vitrectomy surgery for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment
    Bai Junxing, Peng Xiaoyan, Zhu Xiaoqing
    2024, 33(1):  35-38.  doi:10.13281/j.cnki.issn.1004-4469.2024.01.006
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     Objective To investigate the baseline ocular characteristics of patients with recurrence following vitrectomy for primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) and identify potential risk factors for the recurrence. Design Retrospective case series. Participants 16 patients (16 eyes) with recurrent retinal detachment after initial vitrectomy for RRD at Beijing Hua'er Hospital from January 2017 to December 2021 were selected, and 45 patients (45 eyes) who did not experience recurrence after initial vitrectomy during the same period were randomly selected as the control group. Methods Clinical data and ophthalmic examination results of the patients were analyzed retorspetively. We compared the clinical data at the initial diagnosis (course of disease, lens status, macular involvement, hole location, extent of detachment, inferior involvement, PVR grading, axial length, preoperative visual acuity, preoperative intraocular pressure) between the two groups, and recorded the characteristics in recurrence and follow-up. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for recurrent retinal detachment after vitrectomy. Main Outcome Measures Course of disease, lens status, macular involvement, hole location, extent of detachment, inferior involvement, PVR grading. Results Univariate analysis showed that wider extent of retinal detachment (χ2=10.048, P=0.002), poor visual acuity (χ2=10.678, P=0.001), inferior hole location (χ2=5.972, P=0.045), inferior quadrant involvement (χ2=5.054, P=0.025), and PVR≥C grade (χ2=16.775, P<0.001) were associated with recurrence. Logistic regression analysis further indicated that the OR value for PVR grading ≥C (X1) was 8.47 (95% CI: 1.521~47.163, P=0.015). The main effect model for risk factors of recurrent retinal detachment was established as Logit (P)=β0(-3.322)+2.136X1 (χ2=23.133, P<0.001). Conclusion C grade or worse PVR is an important risk factor for recurrence of retinal detachment after vitrectomy for RRD. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2024, 33: 35-38)
    Six months efficacy of vitrectomy combined with different dosage intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide for idiopathic macular
    Chen Fei, Qiu Yan, Tang Leilei, He Huijun, Wang Bing, Gao Feng
    2024, 33(1):  39-45.  doi:10.13281/j.cnki.issn.1004-4469.2024.01.007
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    Objective To investigate the effect and safety of 25-gauge vitrectomy combination with different dosage of intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) for the treatment of the patients with idiopathic macular epiretinal membrane (iERM). Design Randomized controlled trial. Participants From April to October 2022, sixty eyes of 60 patients with iERM diagnosed by department of Ophthalmology at Tengzhou Central People’s Hospital were included. Methods The patients were classified randomly into vitrectomy combined with IVTA 1 mg group (20 eyes of 20 patients) and vitrctomy combined with IVTA 2 mg group (20 eyes of 20 patients) , and vitrectomy group (control group, 20 eyes of 20 patients). Before and 1, 3, 6 months after the surgery, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA, LogMAR) was measured using the international standard decimal visual acuity chart, intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured with non-contact tonometer, and central macular thickness (CMT), disorganization of retinal inner layers (DRIL) was assessed using the optical coherence tomography (OCT). Chi-square test was used for counted data and ranked data. One-way ANOVA was used for measurement data conforming to normal distribution, otherwise Kruskal-Wallis H test was applied. Comparison of BCVA and CMT before and after treatment within the group was performed using Friendman test. Main Outcome Measures BCVA, IOP, CMT, DRIL. Results One and three months after the surgery, the mean BCVA in vitrectomy combined with IVTA 1 mg and 2 mg group was higher than in vitrectomy group, and CMT was less than that in vitrectomy group (all P<0.05). But the difference was not statistically significant between vitrectomy combined with IVTA 1 mg group and IVTA 2 mg group (P>0.05). However, at 6 months postoperatively, there was no statistical differences among all the three groups regarding CMT, DRIL, and BCVA (all P>0.05). Three patients (15%) in the IVTA 2 mg group had varying degrees of IOP increase 1 month after surgery, all of which decreased to normal after medication. Conclusion Vitrectomy combined with IVTA 1 mg or 2 mg can accelerate postoperative visual improvement and CMT reduction in patients with iERM, but can not improve long-term prognosis. The effect of IVTA 1 mg is similar to that of IVTA 2 mg, but safer. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2024, 33: 39-45)
    Twenty-one months efficacy of intravitreal chemotherapy for retinoblastoma with vitreous seeding
    Li Cheng, Zhang Chengyue, Cui Yanhui, Li Li
    2024, 33(1):  47-51.  doi:10.13281/j.cnki.issn.1004-4469.2024.01.008
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    Objective To explore the clinical efficacy of intravitreal chemotherapy for retinoblastoma with vitreous seeding. Design  Retrospectvie case series. Participants 18 patients (18 eyes) unilateral group cT2 retinoblastoma patients diagnosed and treated at Beijing Children’s Hospital from October 2019 to October 2020 were recruited. Methods According to the morphological characteristics of vitreous implant lesions, the patients were divided into type 1 (dust-like) and type 2 (spherical). All the patients received intravitreal injection of melphalan. Number of intravitreal injection, time to regression of vitreous seeds, follow-up time, complications related to surgery and extraocular extension were recorded. Globe salvage rate were computed. Number of intravitreal injection and time to regression of vitreous seeds in different group were compared with rank sum test. Main Outcome Measures The Times of intravitreal chemotherapy, the regression time of vitreous implantation tumor, the follow-up time, the occurrence of surgery-related complications, the presence of extraocular metastasis of tumor, and the eye preservation rate. Results Among 18 patients (18 eyes) unilateral group cT2 retinoblastoma patients, the morphologic feature of vitreous seeds was dustlike (type1) in 10 patients (10 eyes), was spherelike (type 2) in 8 patients (8 eyes). Vitreous seeds of all patients regressed after intravitreal injection of melphalan. During the treatment and follow-up period, 8 eyes (44.4%) had pepper-and-salt retinopathy close to the injection location in the retina and 2 eyes(11.1%) had mild vitreous hemorrhage. No patient died or had extraocular extension. The follow-up time was (21.08±2.18)months. The median number of intravitreal injection for type 1 and type 2 was 2.5(2, 3) and 5.5(5, 6), respectively (Z=-3.679, P<0.05). The median time to regression of vitreous seeds for type 1 and type 2 was 1.875 months(1.56,2.00) and 3.875 months(3.50, 4.06), respectively (Z=-3.586, P<0.05). Conclusion Intravitreal chemotherapy is the very effective treatment modality for retinoblastoma with vitreous seeds. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2024, 33: 47-51)
    Effect of early mydriasis after cataract surgery on pupil diameter in patients with diabetic retinopathy
    Sun Lin, Wu Xiaoqiang, Ning Chaobing
    2024, 33(1):  53-56.  doi:10.13281/j.cnki.issn.1004-4469.2024.01.009
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    Objective To investigate the effect of early mydriasis on pupil diameter in patients with diabetic retinopathy after cataract surgery. Design Randomized clinical trial. Participants 256 patients with diabetic retinopathy combined with cataract who underwent cataract surgery in Zigong Third People's Hospital from December 2020 to December 2021. Methods The patients were divided into 128 cases each in the experimental and control group according to the random number table method. The experimental group was given compound tropicamide eye drops to dilate the pupil on the 1st to 7th postoperative days, and the control group was given dilation on the 7th to 14th postoperative days. Pupil diameter≥7 mm at 5 min after the end of pupil dilation was considered to have reached the standard. Comparing the clinical data of the two groups, Logistic regression was used to correct the influencing factors of pupil diameter and analyze the correlation between the early pupil dilation and the diameter after pupil dilation. Main Outcome Measures Pupil diameter and pupil diameter attainment. Results The ideal and total attainment of pupil diameter in the experimental group were higher than that in the control group (χ2=9.976, P=0.002). After adjusted for age, duration of diabetes mellitus, diabetic retinopathy stage, preoperative corrected visual acuity, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level, and albumin creatinine ratio (ACR) level, the pupil diameter after pupil dilation in the experimental group was greater than that in the control group (P<0.05). Early postoperative pupil dilation was independently associated with increased diameter after pupil dilation (OR=0.53, 95%CI: 0.38~0.71, P<0.001). Conclusion Early postoperative dilation is helpful to the  better pupil diameter attainment and larger pupil diameters in the caract patients with diabetic retinopathy. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2024, 33: 53-56)
    Prevalence and risk factors of hypertensive retinopathy in Zhangjiakou City in 2021-2022
    Zhang Jia, Wang Yanli, Song Xiaocong, Wang Shuzhen
    2024, 33(1):  57-60.  doi:10.13281/j.cnki.issn.1004-4469.2024.01.010
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     Objective To investigate the prevelence and risk factors of hypertensive retinopathy in Zhangjiakou City, Hebei province. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants Residents in 19 counties of Zhangjiakou city from May 2021 to December 2022. Methods The residents were screened for hypertension and hypertensive retinopathy. Blood pressure measurements, eye examinations and venous laboratory tests were performed on all the subjects. Age, gender, course of disease, body mass index and complications of the patients were collected by questionnaire. The prevalence of hypertensive retinopathy among residents in Zhangjiakou City was analyzed and the risk factors affecting the prevalence were analyzed. Main Outcome Measures Prevalence, the risk factors. Result A total of 1320 hypertension patients were detected in 8056 residents, and the prevalence rate of hypertension was 16.39%. 212 of the 1320 hypertensive patients were found to have retinopathy, the prevalence was 13.06% in hypertensive patients and 2.63% in all the examined residents. There was no difference between the proportion of male and female patients with hypertensive retinopathy, and the proportion of patients aged ≥60 years old was higher than that of patients aged < 60 years old (P<0.05). The disease course, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, diabetes and smoking history in the patient group were higher than those in the control group (P<0.05). Regression results showed that long course of disease (OR=1.747), high systolic blood pressure (OR=2.340), high diastolic blood pressure (OR=1.424), diabetes history (OR=13.481) were risk factors for the occurrence of hypertensive retinopathy (all P<0.05). Conclusion The prevalence of hypertensive retinopathy in 19 counties and districts of Zhangjiakou City was about 13%, and the prevalence was high among residents aged ≥60 years. The risk factors were long course of disease, high systolic blood pressure, high diastolic blood pressure, and diabetes history. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2024, 33: 57-60)
    Six months efficacy of inferior oblique muscle belly transposition in treating small angle congenital superior oblique muscle palsy
    Liu Xiuping, Zhang Chengyue, Wang Fengxian, Liu Dongyue, Wang Zheng, Han Ningze
    2024, 33(1):  61-65.  doi:10.13281/j.cnki.issn.1004-4469.2024.01.011
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    Objective To investigate the clinical effect of inferior oblique muscle belly transposition in the small angle congenital superior oblique muscle palsy with compensatory head position. Design Retrospective cases series. Participants The 18 patients (18 eyes) who has single eye small angle congenital superior oblique muscle palsy with compensatory head position and treated in the Ophthalmology Department of Baoding Hospital of Beijing Children's Hospital from April 2019 to December 2022. Methods For the above 18 patients, give the surgery of inferior oblique muscle belly transposition. The muscle abdomen was about 10-11 mm away from the inferior oblique muscle end and was fixed 5 mm after the temporal end of the lower rectus muscle. Observe the angle of vertical strabismus at the first-eye position measured with a prism, according to the Hunter grading method inferior oblique muscle hyperactivity of sick eye, compensatory head position, the fovea-disc angle (FDA) of fundus photograph was measured using Photoshop7.0 software. Main Outcome Measures The angle of vertical strabismus, inferior oblique muscle hyperactivity, compensatory head position and FDA. Results The angle of vertical strabismus at the first-eye position at 6 months after surgery was (0.51±0.60) PD, it was significantly lower than before (5.03±0.84) PD (t=14.241, P<0.001). In the 18 eyes, before surgery,  the oblique muscle hyperactivity was 2+ in 10 eyes, 6 eyes disappeared and 4 eyes were 1+ after surgery; before surgery the oblique muscle hyperactivity was 1+ in 8 eyes, all disappeared after surgery, which was 100% effective. Before surgery all the 18 children showed the head tilt toward the healthy eye side, disappeared after surgery in 12 patients, and the compensatory head position was significantly improved in 6 children, there’s no reverse tilt, which was 100% effective. The FDA after surgery (4.81±2.53)° decreases (3.02±0.91)° than before surgery (9.82±5.17)°. During the 6 months’ follow-up, none of the patients developed relevant complications. Conclusion Inferior oblique muscle belly transposition is safe and effective for the treatment of small angle congenital superior oblique muscle palsy, especially in patients with compensatory head position. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2024, 33: 61-65)
    Six months efficacy of shave excision on lid margin nevus without invasion of tarsus or conjunctiva
    Hu Yifan, He Yueqing, Hou Zhijia
    2024, 33(1):  67-71.  doi:10.13281/j.cnki.issn.1004-4469.2024.01.012
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    Objective To observe the efficacy of the shave excision on the benign lid margin nevus without invasion of tarsusor or conjunctiva. Design Retrospective case series. Participants 110 eyes of 106 patients diagnosed as benign lid margin nevus without invasion of tarsusor or conjunctiva between August 2019 and March 2023 in the Beijing Tongren Hospital. Methods The clinical data of the patients were retrospectively described and analyzed. All patients were treated with shave excision, and were followed up for 6 months after operation. Age and gender of the patients, the location, shape, size of the nevus, the duration of the operation, pathological results, the complications and recurrence of the nevus were recorded. Main Outcome Measures The duration of the operation, pathological results, the complications and recurrence of the nevus. Results The average operation time was 4±1 minute (2~11 minutes). After operation, all patients had good appearance, no obvious scar, no bleeding or infection. Complete removal of nevus was achieved in all patients. Pathological examinations revealed 76 intradermal nevus and 5 compound nevus. No recurrence was found during the follow-up period. There was no complication such as eyelid deformities, ectropion, entropion, or baldness postoperatively. Only 2 patients developed trichiasis after operation, and their symptoms relieved after treatment. Conclusion For the benign lid margin nevus that have no invasion of tarsus or conjunctiva, shave excision is a safe, effective and rapid surgical method. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2024, 33: 67-71)
    One year efficacy of nasal endoscopic surgery on congenital dacryocystocele
    Zheng Yingjie, Zhang Yi, Liu Yujuan
    2024, 33(1):  71-75.  doi:10.13281/j.cnki.issn.1004-4469.2024.01.013
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    Objective To observe the efficacy of nasal endoscopic surgery on congenital dacryocystocele. Design Retrospective case series. Participants A total of 131 children with congenital dacryocystocele admitted to Shaying Hospital, Ma'anshan, Anhui Province, Nanjing Aier Eye Hospital, and Jinzhou Aier Eye Hospital from January 2018 to January 2021 were included. Methods The patients' data were reviewed, and all patients underwent nasal endoscopic surgery (nasal cyst endoscopic marsupialization or endoscopic intranasal dacryocystorhinostomy). The follow-up time was 3 to 24 months, with an average of (14.3±2.1) months. Cure was defined as the disappearing of the mass, overflow of tears, and breathing difficulties; improvement was defined as the disappearance of mass, overflow empyema, and the presence of residual tears (due to trocar andtears puncture); unhealed was defined as the presence of overflowing pus and tears. Main Outcomes Measures Cure rate, improvement rate and complications. Results No serious intraoperative complications (such as bleeding and tissue damage) and postoperative complications (bleeding, infection, and hole atresia) were found. 85.5% cases (112/131 cases) were postoperatively cured; 14.5% cases (19/131 cases) were improved after surgery. Conclusion Nasal endoscopic surgery is relatively safe, with high success rate for treatment of congenital dacryocystocele. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2024, 33: 71-75)