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    Prevalence and causes of visual field loss determined by frequency doubling perimetry in elderly population of Beijing
    WANG Ya-Xing, XU Liang, LI Jian-Jun, ZHANG Rong-Xiu, SUN Xiu-Ying, Jost B. Jonas
    Ophthalmology in China    2012, 21 (1): 29-33.  
    Abstract7889)      PDF(pc) (2278KB)(5886)       Save
    Objective To determine prevalence and causes of visual field loss (VFL) as determined by frequency doubling perimetry in elderly Chinese. Design Population-based cross-sectional study. Participants 4 439 participants inhabited in certain rural villages or urban communities of greater Beijing were enrolled. Methods Detailed ophthalmic examinations and questionaire were applied. Visual field was assessed by frequency doubling threshold perimetry. An abnormal visual field was defined as at least one test location of reduced sensitivity. Main Outcome Measures Prevalence of visual field defects and their causes. Results Of the 4 439 persons examined, 4 350 (98.0%) subjects (8 617 eyes) provided measurement data by frequency doubling perimetry.  In subjects aged 40 to 49 years, most frequent cause for VFL was degenerative myopia followed by glaucoma, other optic nerve diseases, and cataract. In the subjects aged 60 to 69 years, most frequent cause for VFL was cataract, followed by glaucoma and degenerative myopia. In the subjects aged 70+ years, most frequent cause for VFL was glaucoma, followed by cataract and degenerative myopia. VFL was significantly associated with age (P<0.001), myopic refractive error (P<0.001), rural region (P=0.001), low level of education (P=0.01), degree of nuclear cataract (P<0.001), and intraocular pressure (P<0.001). Conclusions Degenerative myopia, cataract and glaucoma were the most common causes for visual field defect in adult Chinese. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21: 29-33)
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    23 gauge vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy
    MA Kai, ZHANG Feng
    Ophthalmology in China    2012, 21 (2): 97-101.  
    Abstract3105)            Save
    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of 23 gauge(G) vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy(PDR). Design Retrospective case series. Participants 105 eyes of 100 patients with PDR from Beijing Tongren Hospital were included. Methods All the eyes were performed 23-gauge vitrectomy on by the same surgeon from January 2010 to June 2011. Surgical procedures including surgical time, times of tool exchanges, visual outcome and postoperative reactions were summarized. Main Outcome Measures Surgical time, times of tool exchanges, visual outcome and postoperative reactions. Results 32/105 eyes were simple vitreous hemorrhage, in which the average surgical time was 52.0±15.2 minutes, and times of tool exchanges were 8.5±2.5. 23/105 eyes needed proliferative membrane peeling without significant tractional retinal detachment, in which the average surgical time was 65.0±12.7 minutes, and times of tool exchanges were 12.4±3.4. 50/105 eyes were tractional and secondary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, in which the average surgical time was 87.0±17.1 minutes, and times of tool exchanges were 15.7±4.1. Silicone oil injection was performed on 30 eyes. There was no dialysis of ora serrata in all the patients. As for intraoperative bleeding episodes, electrocoagulation were performed on 16/105 eyes. No intraocular scissors were used. Visual acuity  of all patients improved 1-3 months after operation. Conclusion 23 G system vitrectomy can be used in both simple and complicated cases of PDR. The advantages based on the unique construction of the vitrector and using of cannulas lead to get high efficiency, less intraoperative and postoperative complications and better outcome. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21: 97-101)
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    Causes of the delaying treatment for severe herpes simplex keratitis and efficacy of the comprehensive treatment
    JIANG Yang, LI Ying, WANG Zhong-hai, LUO Yan, JIN Yu-mei
    Ophthalmology in China    2012, 21 (3): 172-177.  
    Abstract3294)            Save
     Objective To investigate the causes of the delaying treatment of severe herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) and to evaluate the clinical effects of comprehensive treatment for HSK. Design Retrospective case series. Participants 102 eyes of 100 patients with severe HSK attended to Peking Union Medical College Hospital from Sep. 2008 to Nov. 2010. Methods The treatment histories of 52 patients (53 eyes) with complete records were retrospectively analysed. For all of the participants, ganciclovir were administered 0.5~1.0 g, 3 times per day orally and 4 times per day locally combined with 0.1% fluorometholone eye drops 3 times per day or 20~30 g prednisolone once per day orally; and tropicamide 1~3 times per day according to the condition. Preventive antibiotics were administered in cases with corneal ulcer and incomplete epithelium, while eye protectants in all cases. Visual acuities and signs were evaluated before and after the therapy at 1st,2nd, and 4th week. Curative effects were analyzed. Main Outcome Measures Causes of the delaying treatment; visual acuity, ciliary congestion, corneal infiltration, corneal opacity, corneal edema, folding of the descemet membrane and keratic precipitates; effective and curative rate. Results 12 (23.08%) of severe HSK cases were misdiagnosed as iritis administered with steroid without antiviral drugs, in which 2 patients were misdiagnosed as iritis combined with band degeneration of cornea and 1 patient was misdiagnosed as iridocorneal endothelial syndrome. Keratitis type of  32 (61.54%) cases was not clarified, 24 (75%) of which were administered with antibiotics without antiviral drugs. 24 (66.67%) patients who suffered iritis or trabecular meshwork inflammation were not administered with steroid or ciliary body relaxant. 1 patients suffered secondary ocular hypertension caused by trabecular meshwork inflammation was administered with pilocarpine every hour. For the effects of the comprehensive treatment, comparing with the mean visual acuity before the treatment (0.29±0.40), the mean visual acuity at 1st, 2nd, and 4th week (0.34±0.41, 0.42±0.42, and 0.56±0.45, respectively) after the treatment was improved significantly (t=6.153, 7.275, 9.220, respectively, all P=0.000). The conditions of ciliary congestion, corneal infiltration, corneal opacity, corneal edema, folding of the descemet membrane and keratic precipitates improved significantly at 1st,2nd, and 4th week (F=231.543,136.700,106.031,58.323,19.183,60.590, respectively; all P=0.000). During the follow-up observation for 1 year, 4 cases (3.92%) developed recurrence and 3 cases (2.94%) got their cornea become thin with the condition under control. No other adverse conditions was observed. Conclusion It is the important guarantee to cure severe HSK that attention should be paid to original diagnosis and comprehensive treatment.
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    Five-year incidence of retinal microvascular abnormalities and its associations with arterial hypertension
    WANG Shuang1, XU Liang1, JONAS Jost B2, WANG Ya-xing1, YOU Qi-sheng1, WANG Yun-song1, YANG Hua1, ZHOU Jin-qiong1, LIU Xue1
    Ophthalmology in China    2013, 22 (6): 397-404.  
    Abstract1471)            Save
    Objective To describe the 5-year incidence of retinal microvascular abnormalities and analyze their associations with arterial hypertension in nondiabetic elderly Chinese subjects in urban and rural Beijing. Design Population-based cohort study. Participants  3251 subjects who had participated in the Beijing Eye Study 2001 and were returned for reexamination in the Beijing Eye Study 2006. Methods By using fundus photographs, we determined the 5-year incidence and change (progression or regression) of retinal microvascular abnormalities, including focal narrowing (FN) of retinal arterioles, arteriovenous nicking (AVN), and retinopathy. Arterial hypertension was graded as controlled treated arterial hypertension, uncontrolled treated arterial hypertension, and untreated arterial hypertension. Main Outcome Measures Incidence, worsening, and regression rate of retinal microvascular abnormalities. Results After excluding patients with diabetes mellitus or any retinal or optic nerve disease, 2058 subjects (1409 women [68.5%]) were included in the study. The mean age of subjects was 53.8±9.5 years. The 5-year accumulated incidence of FN, AVN, and retinopathy was 4.1%, 1.4%, and 3.3%, respectively. Adjusted for age, gender, and region of habitation, the 5-year incidence of FN, AVN, and retinopathy increased 1.58 times (95%CI: 1.24~2.00, P<0.001), 1.55 times (95% CI: 1.04~2.32, P=0.03), and 1.46 times (95% CI: 1.12~1.91, P=0.005) respectively for every 10 mmHg increase in mean arterial blood pressure. After adjusting for age, gender, and region of habitation, the rate of regression of FN decreased by 28% with every increase in the grade of the arterial hypertension classification. Correspondingly, the rate of regression of FN was significantly higher in the group with controlled arterial hypertension (44.4%) than in the uncontrolled (22.6%) and untreated (11.5%) groups (P=0.01). Conclusion Arterial hypertension was strongly associated with the incidence and longitudinal change of retinal microvascular abnormalities in nondiabetic subjects. Better control of arterial hypertension was correlated with a decreased incidence of retinal microvascular abnormalities and an increased regression rate of FN. This suggests that retinal FN, as potentially the first step of retinal microvascular abnormalities, is reversible if arterial hypertension is controlled.
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    Clinical evaluation of the rebounder tonometer in patients with congenital glaucoma
    ZHEN Yi, WANG Tao, WANG Wen-Xin, ZHENG Song
    Ophthalmology in China    2012, 21 (4): 278-281.  
    Abstract3495)            Save
    【Abstract】 Objective To evaluate the clinical value of the rebounder tonometer (RBT) in congenital glaucoma by comparing with Perkins applanation tonometer and Schiotz tomometer. Design Evaluation of diagnostic techniques. Participants 29 cases (29 eyes) of the congenital glaucoma patients aged 12.0 ± 3.0 months who were measured intraocular pressure (IOP) in Beijing Tongren Eye Center. Method IOP was measured with the rebound tonometer, Schiotz tonometer and Perkins applanation tonometer. Measurements  were repeated three times each tonometer. Main Outcome Measures IOP values and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results Mean IOP values obtained by RBT, Schiotz and Perkins tonometer were 19.3±8.5 mm Hg, 21.1±10.8 mm Hg, and 18.5±7.8 mm Hg, respectively(F=0.61, P=0.55). The difference of IOP values among three tonometers was not significant. The average difference between RBT and Perkins tonometer was 0.8±2.4 mm Hg. The average difference between Schiotz and Perkins tonometer was 2.6±2.4 mm Hg. The average difference between Schiotz and RBT was (1.8±2.4)mm Hg. The values of Perkins applanation tonometer were significant correlated with RBT (r=0.934,P=0.000) and Schiotz(r=0.933,P=0.000). Conclusion The accuracy of rebounder tonometer can meet the IOP measurement needs in congenital glaucoma patients. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21: 278-281)
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    Comment on combined surgery on coexisting cataract and glaucoma
    ZHANG Xiu-lan
    Ophthalmology in China    2012, 21 (1): 3-6.  
    Abstract5206)      PDF(pc) (2063KB)(6469)       Save
    The advance of phacoemulsification has been making huge significant contribution to the management of glaucoma. However, management of glaucoma with coexisting cataract has raised many discussions in recent years including current treatment strategies, indications, surgical procedure, timing and outcomes. This short paper will discuss these issues. Surgical strategy of primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) should be determined with an individualized approach based on the degree of peripheral anterior synechiae, the number of glaucoma medications, the opacity of lens and visual functions. Proficient operation skills are needed for choosing combined surgery. Cataract extraction should be greatly avoided during acute attack stage of PACG. The effect of cataract extraction in primary open angel glaucoma (POAG) still needs further study to clarify. For other types of glaucoma such as malignant glaucoma, aggressive lens extraction is of controversial. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21:3-6)
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    Treatment of restrictive strabismus in thyroid associated ophthalmopathy
    AI Li-Kun
    Ophthalmology in China    2012, 21 (6): 367-370.  
    Abstract2794)      PDF(pc) (1963KB)(5659)       Save
    【Abstract】 Restrictive strabismus which due to thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) is challenging to a surgeon as well as related medical team. With help of optometrist or orthoptist, Fresnel prism can be used at active stage. Usually surgery should be scheduled at least 6 months after the deviation becomes stable, unless high intraocular pressure or visual field defect was detected. Surgical release of surrounding fibrotic tissue (both orbit side and globe side) should be done thoroughly before the muscle recession. Mild under-correction right after the surgery is suggested in most cases, except restricted hypertropia. In terms of long term result, most patients achieved single vision at primary and down gaze. Even though some prophylactic approach had been applied during the inferior rectus recession, post-operation lower lid retraction still occurred occasionally, which require further study. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21: 367-370)
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    Clinical application of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in ophthalmology
    SUN Xu-guang
    Ophthalmology in China    2013, 22 (3): 147-148.  
    Abstract1607)      PDF(pc) (873KB)(5142)       Save
    Non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) are a class of medicines which has the effect of anti-inflammation and analgesia with the different chemical structure and similar pharmaceutical mechanism. Recently, clinical application of NSAIDs in ophthalmology gradually becomes popular. The proper application of them depends upon the knowledge on their pharmaceutical mechanism, indication, adverse reactions and constant summaries of the clinical experiences.
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    Clinal effects of LASIK on binocular vision in myopic anisometropia
    YANG Liang, HU Qi, KANG Yang, HUANG Lei, WANG Ke-meng
    Ophthalmology in China    2012, 21 (3): 187-190.  
    Abstract3554)            Save
    Objective To analyze the clinical effects on binocular vision after LASIK for myopic anisometropia, and evaluate its clinical value in the view of vision quality. Design Prospective case series. Participants 36 cases (72 eyes) with myopic anisometropia who received LASIK. Methods All the cases were followed-up for at least 3 months. The uncorrected visual acuity(UCVA), best corrected visual acuity(BCVA), refraction and binocular vision were analyzed before and 3 months after surgery. Main Outcome Measures UCVA, BCVA, refraction,simultaneous binocular visions,combined, short and long distance stereopsis visions before and after LASIK. Results The UCVA was 0.01~0.2 before LASIK, while the UCVA reached 1.0 after LASIK. The amount of myopic anisometropia before LASIK was (5.01±1.96) D( 2.50~9.00 D), and the amount was (0.28±0.22) D(0.00~0.75 D) after LASIK(P<0.01). In 26 cases with high degree anisometropia (2.50 D≤anisometropia degree≤6.00 D), 12 cases of glasses-corrected patients got normal short distance stereopsis vision and 22 cases of LASIK-treated patients got normal short distance stereopsis vision (P<0.05); in the 10 cases with severe anisometropia (anisometropia degree >6.00 D), there was no patients who got normal short distance stereopsis vision at both the pre-operation and post-operation. 33 cases of glasses-corrected patients and 34 cases of LASIK-treated patients got simultaneous binocular visions (P>0.05). 18 cases of glasses-corrected patients and 33 cases of LASIK-treated patients got combined visions. 13 cases of glasses-corrected patients and 23 cases of LASIK-treated patients got long distance stereopsis visions (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in simultaneous binocular visions, but of great significance among combined, and long distance stereopsis visions (P<0.05). Conclusions LASIK for myopic anisometropia can improve the visual acuity, reduce the refractive difference, and increase combined and stereopsis vision. LASIK was effective for myopic anisometropia.
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    Outdoor activity and myopia control
    XU Liang
    Ophthalmology in China    2012, 21 (1): 1-2.  
    Abstract5795)      PDF(pc) (1002KB)(6215)       Save
    Although special attention to children’s myopia by society and government, and taking many measures for its control, the prevalence of children’s myopia is not decrease but continuously increases. This paper will explain the causes of high prevalence of children’s myopia with plot of epidemiological surveys in deferent regions. Firstly, the prevalence of children’s myopia is correlated with age. Secondly, civilization, modernization and smaller activity space are risk factors of myopia. Thirdly, for recent 10 years the prevalence of myopia has significantly been increasing. Fourthly, the prevalence of primary students is correlated with strong preschool education. We quote some researches and illustrate that myopia is caused by long-term near-distance activity and lacking of outdoor activity. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21: 1-2)
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    The prevalence and associated risk factors of myopia in grade 1 and grade 4 primary students of defined schools in urban and rural regions of Beijing
    GUO Yin, LIU Li-Juan, XU Liang, LV Yan-Yun , TANG Ping, FENG Yi, MENG Meng
    Ophthalmology in China    2012, 21 (2): 127-131.  
    Abstract3714)            Save
    Objective To explore the prevalence and associated factors of myopia among Grade-1 and Grade-4 primary students in urban and rural regions of Beijing. Design School-based, cross-sectional investigation. Participants Two schools were investigated. Three hundred eight-two Grade-1 and 299 Grade-4 primary students participated in the study. Methods Comprehensive eye examination including visual acuity, ocular motility evaluation, auto-refraction, slit lamp biomcroscopy, ocular biometry and non-mydriatic fundus photography were carried out on all paticipants. Parents and children were administered detailed questionnaires including general information, nearwork, social-economic parameters and outdoor activity. Main Outcome Measures Prevalence and associated factors of myopia. Results According to different definitions of myopia (Spherical Equivalent, SE≤-0.50 D,≤-1.00 D,≤-1.50 D,≤-2.00 D), the prevalence was 48.1%, 27.9%, 17.5% and 11.6%, respectively. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the prevalence of myopia(SE≤-1.00 D)was associated with age (P=0.003, OR=1.45, 95% canfidence intervals, CI: 1.25,1.67), place (P=0.000, OR=0.20, 95%CI: 0.14,0.29), parental myopia(P=0.000, OR=2.99, 95%CI: 1.83,4.89), outdoor sports (P=0.013, OR=0.14, 95%CI: 0.03,0.65), outdoor leisure (P=0.001, OR=0.33, 95%CI: 0.22,0.49), outdoor activity(P=0.001, OR=0.35, 95%CI: 0.24,0.50), studying indoors (P=0.001, OR=1.37, 95%CI: 1.09,1.72), watching television indoors (P=0.008, OR=0.66, 95%CI: 0.52,0.84). Correspondingly, axial length was significantly associated with higher age (P=0.000; standardized coefficient beta: 0.28), taller body height (P=0.001; beta: 0.18), parental myopia (P=0.03; beta: 0.09) and urban region of habitation (P=0.000; beta: -0.21), less time spent outdoors (P=0.001; beta: -0.16), outdoor leisure(P=0.001;beta:-0.15)and more time spent indoors with studying (P=0.02; beta: 0.10). Children with higher age, urban region of habitation, less time spent outdoors, parental myopia, more time spent indoors with studying had higher prevalence of myopia and longer axial length. Conclusions The prevalence of myopia and axial length were associated with older age, urban region of habitation, parental mypia, more indoor studying and less outdoor activity. More outdoor activity may potentially be helpful to reduce the high prevalence of myopia in the young generation. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21: 127-131)
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    Efficacy and complications of heavy silicone oil Densiron68 for traumatic retinal detachment
    LI Lin, LI Qi-Yan, PANG Xiu-Qin
    Ophthalmology in China    2012, 21 (4): 252-256.  
    Abstract2784)            Save
    【Abstract】 Objective To observe efficacy and complications of  heavy silicone oil (HSO) Densiron68 for traumatic retinal detachment. Design Retrospective compare case series. Participants 40 eyes of 40 patients with traumatic retinal detachment in Beijing Tongren Hospital. Methods The pars plana vitrectomy and retinal detachment surgery were applied to the 40 patients.HSO was applied to 20 patients with retinal detachment arising from inferior or posterior retinal breaks (HSO group). Other 20 patients were applied with standard silicone oil (SSO group). The follow-up time was 12 to 68 weeks. Main Outcome Measures Visual acuity, intraocular pressure, retinal reattachment and complications. Results The retinal reattachment rate in HSO group was 50% (10/20) compared to 55% (11/20) in SSO group (P=0.752). The recurrent rate of superior retinal detachment was 60% (6/10) in HSO group, and 11% (1/9) in SSO group (P=0.057). The recurrent rate of inferior retinal detachment was 10% (1/10) in HSO group, and 67% (6/9) in SSO group (P=0.020). In HSO group, logMAR visual acuity improved from preoperative 2.63±1.00 to postoperative 2.19±0.86 (P=0.037). In SSO group, logMAR visual acuity improved from preoperative 2.27±1.06 to postoperative 1.74±1.04 (P=0.112). Significant increase of intraocular pressure occurred in 30% patients in SSO group while 0% in HSO group (P=0.020). Emulsification rate of silicone oil in SSO group was 75% compared to 100% in HSO group (P=0.047). Conclusion Heavy silicone oil Densiron 68 is applicable to traumatic retinal detachment with inferior or posterior retinal breaks. It is not advised to use heavy silicone oil for long term tamponade because of its higher emulsification rate compared with standard silicone oil. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21: 252-256)
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    Short-term outcome of off-flap Epi-LASIK for moderate to high myopia
    DONG Kun-Feng, ZHANG Yin-Bo
    Ophthalmology in China    2012, 21 (1): 65-68.  
    Abstract5541)      PDF(pc) (1821KB)(6252)       Save
    Objective To observe short-term outcome of off-flap Epi-LASIK for moderate to high myopia. Design Retrospective case series. Participants The study included 203 patients, who had underwent Epi-LASIK in Xingtai Eye Hospital from April 2008 to November 2010. One hundred and ten patients underwent off-flap Epi-LASIK was defined as off-flap group, and 103 patients underwent on-flap Epi-LASIK was defined as traditional group. Methods The uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), refractive status, pain status, level of haze, high degree aberration, and contrast sensitivity function (CSF) were compared between the two groups. All the patients had been followed up for 6 months. Main Outcome Measures Pain status, level of haze, high degree aberration and contrast sensitivity. Results No significant differences in the mean preoperative spherical equivalent between two groups (t=1.62, P=0.11). Compared with the traditional group, the off-flap group had rapider reepithelialization (t=17.25, P=0.00), and less pain at 3 days (Z=11.89, P=0.000) and 5 days (Z=10.34, P=0.000) after operation. Six months after surgery, there was no significant differences in the mean spherical equivalent between groups (t=17.25, P=0.21). Compared with traditional group, the off-flap group had lower level of haze (Z=2.06, P=0.04). Wavefront aberration increased significantly from baseline in both groups (t=-8.05, P=0.00; t=-8.92, P=0.00). Contrast sensitivity function with glare at 18 cpd was better in the off-flap group (1.21±0.13) than in off-flap group (1.15±0.12) (t=2.18,P=0.03). Conclusions Comparing with on-flap Epi-LASIK, off-flap Epi-LASIK offers a rapider visual recovery, comparable pain, a lower level of haze formation, and better visual quality. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21: 65-68)
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    Reacquaint the highlight of orthokeratology
    XIE Pei-Ying
    Ophthalmology in China    2012, 21 (6): 361-365.  
    Abstract6929)      PDF(pc) (2777KB)(6381)       Save
    【Abstract】 In recent 10 years orthokeratology developed rapidly. Through continuous wearing highly oxygen transmissible material reverse geometric special designed ortho-K contact lenses, myopic control treatment for youth has made significant clinical effect, which got highly recognition in optometry field both in domestic and abroad. This paper covered from the exact curative effect of orthokeratology to myopia control, to orthokeratology mechanism research, to the effect of ortho-K contact lens wearing on corneal thickness and corneal endothelial cells, and the effects on biological mechanics, intraocular pressure, anterior chamber changes, to orthokeratology complications, introducing orthokeratology new developments, hoping to draw continued professional high attention. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21: 361-365)
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    The long-term effectiveness of orthokeratology for myopia treatment
    GUO Xi, Yang-Li-Na, XIE Pei-Ying
    Ophthalmology in China    2012, 21 (6): 371-374.  
    Abstract4127)            Save
    【Abstract】 Objective To assess the effectiveness of long-term orthokeratology (Orhto-K, OK)  for myopia  treatment in youth. Design Retrospective case series. Participants 30 young myopia patients. Methods During 2000 to 2005, 30 patients (60 eyes) in the BeiYi Optometry & Ophthalmology Center had been  prescribed with  the Ortho-K contact lens and wore it more than seven years. The refraction, visual acuity, corneal curvature, axial length, anterior chamber depth and lens thickness were examined pre-wearing and post-wearing OK lens at six months, one year, three years, five years and seven years. Main Outcome Measures Refraction (spherical and cylinelrical), uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), corrected visual acuity (CVA), average K value, axial length, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness. Results At post-wearing OK lens six months, UCVA had been significantly improved from 4.26±0.28 to 4.71±0.36 (P=0.00), and average K value of corneal curvature had been apparently flattened from 43.66±1.85 D to 42.41±1.66 D(P=0.00). Refraction had been significantly decreased from -4.76±2.20 D to -2.06±2.90 D (P=0.00). From six months to seven years, the UCVA, refraction and average K value maintained stable (4.70, -2.80 D, 42.40 D). During the entire seven years, the axial length had slowly increased from 25.59±1.07 mm to 26.28±1.44 mm. Conclusions In generally, scientific and standardized long-term Orthokeratology wearing would be effective for controlling myopia and increase of axial length and  improving naked vision. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21: 371-374)
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    Comparison of the effectiveness of common visual parameters for myopia screening in school-age sample
    LIU Peng-Fei, Xiao-Lin, Lu-Zhi-Min, Wang-Feng-Lei, Jin-En-Zhong
    Ophthalmology in China    2012, 21 (5): 327-330.  
    Abstract2881)            Save
    Objective To compare the accuracy of common visual indexes, uncorrected distant visual acuity(UCDVA), axial length/mean corneal redius(AL/CR), refractive state with cycloplegia and non-cycloplegia in school-age large sample myopia for screening, and to put forward a suitable method to replace cycloplegic refractometry. Design Cross-sectional study based on school-age children. Participants School-age children in Suning Country, Hebei Province  were selected. Those students who had the informed consent and had no ocular diseases took part in this study. There were 232 children (123 boys and 109 girls), aging from 6 to 12 years old enrolled. Methods All the students received examinations including UCDVA with standard logarithmic visual acuity chart, <0.9 defined as visual impairment; axial length (AL) and corneal redius (CR) with Optical coherence biological measuring instrument (IOL Master), AL/CR>3 defined as suspicious of myopia; refractometry with automatic refractor (Nissan RM-8000) both in the condition of cycloplegia and non-cycloplegia(≤-0.50 D defined as myopia). 1% cyclopentolate was applied for cycloplegic refraction. The sensitivity, specificity and Youden index of each method was analyzed using the cycoplegic refractometry as gold standard. Main Outcome Measures UCDVA, AL/CR, diopter by refraction with cycloplegia and non-cycloplegia; sensitivity, specificity and Youden index. Results The sensitivity, specificity and Youden Index of UCDVA and non-cycloplegic refractometry in myopia screening was 86.8%, 59.3%, 0.46, and was 94.3%, 66.6%, 0.61 respectively, while those of AL/CR were 90.6%, 81.3%, and 0.72. Conclusion In a large-scale myopia screening, AL/CR could be used as an effective and accurate method instead of cycolplegic refractometry. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21: 327-330)
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    Effect analysis of treatment for post-penetrating keratoplasty glaucoma
    HAO Jing-hua1, LUO Fei2, YAN Chao2, PAN Zhi-qiang2
    Ophthalmology in China    2014, 23 (6): 392-397.   DOI: 10.13281/j.cnki.issn.1004-4469.2014.06.009
    Abstract1134)            Save
    Objective To investigate the treatment efficacy of the secondary glaucoma after penetrating keratoplasty (post-penetrating keratoplasty glaucoma, PPKG). Design Retrospective case series. Participants 34 patients(34 eyes)with PPKG in Beijing Tongren Hospital from January 2010 to January 2013. The primary diseases were as the following: 12 eyes of ocular trauma, 6 eyes of  bullous keratopathy in aphakic or pseudophakic eyes, 4 eyes of adhesive walleye, 4 eyes of corneal ulcers. There were 23 eyes of high-risk corneal keratoplasty. Methods A retrospective clinical data of patients, including corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure(IOP), anterior segment slit lamp, ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) were reviewed. Patients were treated thoroughly with IOP lowering medications, if which was ineffective the glaucoma surgery underwent. Clinical efficacy criteria: after appropriate treatment, IOP ≤21 mmHg or needn't any medication in the end is effective, > 21 mmHg as invalid. The follow-up time was 6~18 months (mean 12.21±3.86 months). Main Outcome Measures IOP. Results In the 34 eyes, 11 eyes (32.4%) used local or systemic hypotensive drugs, 23 eyes (67.6%) used drug and operation treatment. It was found that in the 23 cases who accepted the glaucoma operation, 11 eyes were operated 1 time, 8 eyes 2 times, 2 eyes 3 times , 2 eyes 4 ~ 5 times. Surgical options consisted of diode laser cyclophotocoagulation in 7 eyes, ciliary body cryotherapy in 2 eyes, cyclophotocoagulation, ciliary body cryotherapy in 5 eyes, cyclophotocoagulation, cyclocryotherapy, trabeculectomy in 5 eyes, cataract extraction and small beam excision of anterior vitrectomy + pupil forming operation in 1 eye, cyclophotocoagulation, trabeculectomy in 1 eyes, EX-PRESS drainage screw implantation in 1 eye, trabeculectomy, cyclophotocoagulation, cyclocryotherapy, cyclodialysis + cyclophotocoagulation 1 eye. At the end of the follow-up, in the 11 eyes who simply used the IOP lowering drugs, 5 eyes (45.5%) did not need any drug treatment in the end, 5 eyes (45.5%) still needed 1~2 kinds of intraocular pressure lowering drops, 1 eye (9%) invalid; in the 23 eyes who accepted the operations, 6 eyes (26.1%) did not need any drug treatment, 12 eyes (52.2%) still needed 1~2 kinds of intraocular pressure lowering drops, 2 eyes (8.7%) still needed 3 kinds of drops, 3 eyes (13%) invalid. Conclusion  More than half of the patients with PPKG still need 1 to 2 kinds of intraocular pressure lowering medications after ocular hypotensive drugs and surgery.
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    Short-term effect of intravitreal injection Ranibizumab on intraocular pressure in wet age-related macular degeneration patients
    SONG Shuang, YU Xiao-bing, DAI Hong
    Ophthalmology in China    2014, 23 (6): 380-384.   DOI: 10.13281/j.cnki.issn.1004-4469.2014.06.006
    Abstract1372)            Save
    Objective To observe the short-term effect of intravitreal injection Ranibizumab(Lucentis) on intraocular pressure (IOP). Design Prospective case series. Paticipants  135 eyes from 135 patients (70.54±8.69 y) with wet age-related macular degeneration treated with Ranibizumab in Beijing Hospital. Methods  The IOP were measured by  non-contact tonometer before injection, and at 10, 30,120 minutes and 1 day after injection in a sitting position. Main Outcome Measures  The IOP pre and post-injection. Results    Mean IOP was (15.41±2.69)mmHg , (21.07±5.83) mmHg, (18.24±4.17)mmHg, (17.57±4.60 )mmHg, (15.20±3.05)mmHg, respectively, for the time points immediately before, 10,  30, 120 minutes, and 1 day after injection. Differences of IOP  between before and after injection were statistically significant at 10, 30, 120 minutes (all P<0.05) except 1 day (P=0.239); The ratio of  increasing IOP  gradually decreased after injection, and the ratio at 10 minutes was significantly higher than other times (the ratio of  IOP≥21 mmHg was 45.93%, ≥25 mmHg was 21.48%, ≥30 mmHg was 8.15%; the ratio of IOP  increasing 10 mmHg was 17.78%, increasing 15 mmHg  was 5.19%). The higher the baseline IOP was the more patients with abnormal IOP postinjection occured (P=0.000, OR=0.117, 95%CI: 0.051-0.268).  Conclusion   Intravitreal injection Ranibizumab  (Lucentis) causes a considerable short-term transient rise on IOP in most of wet age-related macular degeneration patients. The IOP increase can be statistically significant from 10 minutes to 2 hours after injection. The high baseline IOP may be a risk factor for short-term rise on IOP postinjection.
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    How internet can modify teaching processes in ophthalmology
    LIANG Qing-Feng, Antoine Labbé, LI Jian-Jun- 
    Ophthalmology in China    2013, 22 (2): 141-143.  
    Abstract1922)            Save
    With increasing number of subspecialties, development of new imaging techniques, use of constantly developing surgical procedures, ophthalmology may benefit from new teaching methods. The purpose of this article is to provide the reader a comprehensive analysis of internet resources in the field of ophthalmology. The characteristics of this new teaching material with abundant resources, interactivity and the possibility of self-education but also its own limitations will be presented. The major resources (international teaching programs, major ophthalmology journals and image database) and the procedures to access rapidly to the better information will be also described. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2013, 22: 141-143)
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    Comparison between light house visual acuity chart and Freiburg electronic visual acuity chart
    YANG Yao-Hua, Zhen-Yi, WU Hai-Tao, Li-Peng- 
    Ophthalmology in China    2013, 22 (2): 117-120.  
    Abstract2061)            Save
    Objective To investigate the clinical application value of Freiburg electronic visual acuity chart by comparing the consistency and repeatability between light house visual acuity chart (LHVAC) and Freiburg electronic visual acuity chart(Freiburg). Design Evaluation of diagnostic technology. Participants Eighty-six staff members(45 men and 41 women)from the Air Force of Hangzhou Aviation Medicine Training Center were involved, with an average age of 26.3±2.1 years. Method All subjects were examined randomly and successively using LHVAC and Freiburg. All examinations were done in the same room. The brightness of the room was less than 3 lux and the work distance was 3 m. For each subject, the difference in visual acuity measurements obtained with the two visual acuity charts were evaluated by paired t-test and R value of the correlation coefficient were calculated. Main Outcome Measures LogMAR visual acuity obtained using the two charts. Results When used first, the logMAR visual acuity of LHVAC was 0.19±0.23. Accordingly, the result of Freiburg was 0.20±0.15. The difference between the two results was -0.011±0.141, the results showed that these two charts had no statistically significant difference between them(t=-0.741, P=0.461)and had significant correlation (r=0.808, P=0.000). When used in second, the logMAR visual acuity of LHVAC chart was 0.32±0.25. Accordingly, the result of Freiburg  was 0.20±0.15. The difference between the two results was -0.118±0.151, the results showed that these two charts had a statistically significant difference between them(t=7.191, P=0.000, however the results were significantly correlated (r=0.810, P=0.000). Using LHVAC, the difference between the two examinations was significant (F=11.872,P=0.001) and the correlation coefficient was 0.938 (P=0.000). Using Freiburg examination, the difference between the two examinations was not significant (F=0.019,P=0.890) and the correlation coefficient was 0.986 (P=0.000). Conclusion The influence of examination order on Freiburg was less than with LHVAC and the repeatability of Freiburg was better than LHVAC. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2013, 22: 117-120)
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    Relationship between ambulatory blood pressure and visual impairment in patients with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy
    YAN Hong-xin1, WEI Shi-hui2
    Ophthalmology in China    2013, 22 (3): 185-188.  
    Abstract1840)            Save
     Objective To investigate the relationship between parameters of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and the impairment of vision in patients with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION). Design Retrospective case series. Participants sixty-three cases (41 males and 22 females) who were diagnosed as NAION were involved. Method All patients were divided into low visual group and better visual group according to the visual impairment; and divided into double eyes group and single eye group according to the affected eye in the current. General condition, biochemical indexes and parameters of ambulatory blood pressure were compared between the two groups respectively. Main Outcome Measures The age, gender, body mass index (BMI), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), the parameters and incidence of abnormal circadian rhythm of ambulatory blood pressure. Results The diastolic blood pressure at night in double eyes group (78.5±11.3 mm Hg) was significantly higher than in single eye group(72.2±10.8 mm Hg) (P=0.044). The age in low visual group (57.1±10.3 years) was significantly older than in better visual group (47.6±9.7 years) (P=0.001). The incidence of normal circadian rhythm of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure was significantly lower in low visual group (11.4%) than in better visual group(36.8%) (P=0.018). Conclusion In terms of NAION, the patients with onset older and abnormal circadian rhythm of ambulatory blood pressure more likely to suffer poor visual acuity.
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    The ophthalmic manifestation of germinoma in sellar region
    LEI Kun, Qu-Yuan-Zhen, Wang-Jian, Wang-Li-Na
    Ophthalmology in China    2012, 21 (5): 313-315.  
    Abstract2368)            Save
     Objective To study the ophthalmic manifestation of patients with germinoma in sellar region. Design Retrospective case series. Participants 43 patients with germinoma in sellar region were collected from 2005 to 2010 in Beijing Tiantan Hospital. Method The visual acuity, fundus photographs and visual fields of patients were analyzed. The correlation analysis was performed between the vision, age  and course of disease. Main Outcome Measures Visual acuty, visual field and fundus manifestation. Result The average age of patients was 15.7±6.5(4~31) years-old. The median of corrected visual acuity was 0.15. There were 74.3% (52/70) eyes with decreased visual acuity, 74.2% (46/62) with the visual field defects, 39.7% (27/68) with fundus changes. A statistically significant correlation was found between the visual acuity and age(r=0.384, P=0.023). There was no statistically significant correlation between the visual acuity and the course of disease. Conclusion Germinoma in sellar region could cause severe eye dysfunction and the rate of blindness was very high. The younger the patient was, the heavier the impairment of vision was. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21: 313-315)
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    The neuronal mechanism of clinical binocular visual function
    LU Wei
    Ophthalmology in China    2012, 21 (5): 297-301.  
    Abstract2661)      PDF(pc) (2986KB)(5238)       Save
    There are interrelation among psychophysics, neuronal anatomy neurophysiology and clinical binocular vision phenomena. Based on neuronal anatomy, there are two corresponding area bilateral retina projecting at fixate direction of Vieth-Müller circle. There are corresponding area between binocular fovea, the temporal area of retina in right eye and nasal area of retina in left eye, the nasal retina in left eye  and the temporal retina in right eye. The two separated corresponding area projecte to the brain via different pathway. The  parvocellular pathway is mostly dealing with  formcolor and fine stereopsis. The magnocellular pathway is mostly dealing with movement space sign and granulate stereopsis. It is very helpful for our practice to understand the clinical binocular vision phenomena more deeply based on this neuronal anatomy. (Ophthalmol CHN,2012, 21:297-301)
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    Clinical observation of the characteristics and meibomian gland function in patients with keratitis associated with blepharitis
    DENG Shi-jing, WANG Zhi-qun, ZHANG Yang, SUN Xu-guang
    Ophthalmology in China    2013, 22 (3): 149-153.  
    Abstract1997)            Save
    Objective To observe the clinical characteristics of keratitis associated with blepharitis and the relationship among keratitis, blepharitis and meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). Design Retrospective cases series. Participants Eighty-four patients (168 eyes) with blepharitis who presented in Beijing Tongren Eye Center from January to October 2012. Method The type of blepharitis, secretion function of meibomian gland, clinical characteristics of keratitis associated with blepharitis were evaluated and scored by slit lamp microscope. The relationship between the signs and extent of keratitis and the type of the blepharitis, MGD were analysed. Main Outcome Measures blepharitis type, secretion function of meibomian gland, and clinical characteristics of keratitis. Results The histories of blepharitis in the participants was 10 days to 12 years (average 22.25±40.46 months). Of all the patients, 1 case (2 eyes) was anterior blepharitis, 42 cases (84 eyes) were posterior blepharitis, and 41 cases (82 eyes) were mixed blepharitis. Among them, 65 cases (104 eyes) were diagnosed as associated keratitis as well. Typically clinical findings consisted of punctuate epithelial erosions, marginal infiltrates, corneal ulcer,and cornea scar. Corneal infiltration and ulcer were more common in mixed blephatitis than in posterior blepharitis(P=0.003). The scores of the secretion difficulty and the meibum in the patients with keratitis were higher significanly than in the patients without keratitis (t=-4.606 and 13.418, P=0.033 and 0.000). Conclusion The clinical signs of keratitis associated with blepharitis were various. Patients with mix blepharitis would be more commonly suffered infiltrates and ulcer in the cornea. The keratitis associated blepharitis is related closely to the dysfunction of the meibomain gland. 
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    Clinical analysis of 32 cases of cytomegalovirus retinitis with AIDS
    CHEN Chao, GUO Chun-Gang, XIE Lian-Yong, LING Yu
    Ophthalmology in China    2012, 21 (6): 405-408.  
    Abstract2397)            Save
    【Abstract】 Objective To investigate characteristics of cytomegalovirus retinitis and immune recovery uveitis in AIDS patients.Design Retrospective cases series. Participants 32 patients with active cytomegalovirus retinitis in Department of Ophthalmology, Beijing You’an Hospital. Methods All 32 patients were evaluated with general and ophthalmic examinations and the clinical characteristics were analyzed. 32 patients underwent ophthalmologic examinations that included visual acuity, anterior segment, fundus examinations, fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) and immunology related examinations. Main Outcome Measures Vision acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP), fundus examinations and CD4+T cell counts. Results In all 32 patients with cytomegalovirus retinitis, visual acuity varied from light perception to 1.0; and their IOP varied from 8 to 16 mm Hg. Eight patients had anterior uveitis. All of the patients had typical cytomegalovirus retinitis. 8(25%) patients whose CD4+T cell counts<10 per/μL had visual acuity varying from light perception to 0.8,3 of whom had immune recovery uveitis. One of them had retinal detachment. 15(46.88%) patients whose CD4+T cell counts were 10~50 per/μL. Their visual acuity varied from finger counting to 0.8. One of them had immune recovery uveitis. One of them had retinal detachment. 9(28.12%) patients had CD4+T cell counts>50 per/μL, none of them had retinal detachment or immune recovery uveitis. 19 patients (including 4 paients with immmune recovery uveitis) had complicated with other opportunistic infections. Conclusion The patients whose CD4+T cell were no more than 50 per/μL were easy to have cytomegalovirus retinitis. The patients whose CD4+T cell counts<10 per/μL were liable to have immune recovery uveitis and other opportunistic infections. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21: 405-408)
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    The preliminary application of lacrimal passage probing surgery for acute dacryocystitis
    QIAO Yu-Chun, Wang-Zhi-Xia, CHEN Jing
    Ophthalmology in China    2012, 21 (1): 70-72.  
    Abstract3331)      PDF(pc) (2151KB)(5434)       Save
     Objective To report the curative effect of lacrimal passage probing surgery for acute dacryocystitis. Design Retrospective case series. Participants 80 cases (80 eyes) of acute dacryocystitis with abscess formation but without perforation. Method  Based on local and systemic broad-spectrum antibiotics, the lacrimal passage probing surgery was promptly performed in 80 cases of acute dacryocystitis before the lacrimal abscess perforation, and drained the liquor pus from the superior-and inferior-dacrydot. Then the canalicular was daily washed with antibiotics until acute inflammation was controlled. Main Outcome Measures The controlled time of the acute inflammation and the skin reaction of dacryocyst area. Results 1 case (1.3%) in 80 cases formed the false passage, so undertaken the dacryocyst incision and drainage. Acute inflammation in other 79 cases (98.7%) was controlled within 3 days, and no skin ulceration happened. Within 7-15 days the local skin recovered normal color and thickness. Conclusion Our priliminary data shows that prompt lacrimal passage probing surgery for acute dacryocystitis to relieve acute inflammation is fast, safe and effective. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21: 70-72)
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    Correct understanding and application of micro-incision cataract phacoemulsification technique
    SONG Hui, TANG Xin
    Ophthalmology in China    2012, 21 (2): 79-81.  
    Abstract3671)      PDF(pc) (1608KB)(6371)       Save
    Advantages of micro-incision cataract surgery include less tissue damage, faster wound healing, smaller surgery-induced astigmatism and smaller influence on corneal aberrations. But as the surgical incision becomes smaller and smaller, clinical surgical operations change correspondingly, such as improvement in capsulorhexis, update of surgical instruments and phacoemulsification machine, selection of IOL and handling with hard nuclear cataract, etc. So it is important to balance the surgical incisions and security of surgical procedures and to choose the technique of phacoemulsification based on the severity of cataract and the type of IOL. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21: 79-81)
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    Application of non-perfusion anterior vitrectomy in the lens subluxation surgery
    LI Rui, YUAN Hui-Min
    Ophthalmology in China    2012, 21 (2): 90-92.  
    Abstract3000)            Save
    Objective To observe the clinical efficacy and safety of the non-perfusion anterior vitrectomy technique for the lens subluxation during phacoemulsification. Design Retrospective case series. Participants 20 patients (20 eyes) with intraoperative lens subluxation during phacoemulsification. Methods Under the application of viscoelastic into the vitreous cavity and cracks within the lens nucleus, no-perfusion 20 G vitrectomy headmaster from the clear corneal incision was put into the capsular bag for cutting, suction lens nucleus, cortex and anterior chamber vitreous. Viscoelastic was added during vitrectomy until full clearning lens nucleus, cortex and vitreous. Three-piece PC-IOL ciliary sulcus fixation was performed in 17 eyes in which range of dislocation was 2 quadrants or more, and CTR + PC-IOL implantation was performed in 3 eyes of less than 2 quadrants. Main Outcome Measures Visual acuity, IOP, and complications. Results There were no nuclear fall into vitreous, severe bleeding and other serious complications during the surgery. All 20 patients were implanted PC-IOL (dual loop ciliary sulcus fixation). After the first day of the surgery 7 patients with increased intraocular pressure returned to normal with treatment. At 1 month after surgery, compared with the preoperation, vision improved 2-8 lines in all patients. Vision of 10 patients (50%) was 0.5 or more. Conclusion Non-perfusion anterior vitrectomy techniques can better deal with lens subluxation during phacoemulsification, providing a new treatment choice to this complications of the intraoperation. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21: 90-92)
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    Stromal cell-derived factor-1 promotes axonal regeneration of retinal ganglion cells in retinal explants
    CEN Ling-Ping, LIANG Jia-Jian, ZHANG Ming-Zhi
    Ophthalmology in China    2012, 21 (4): 256-260.  
    Abstract2814)            Save
    【Abstract】 Objective To investigate whether stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) has promoting effects on axonal regeneration in retinal explant. Design Experimental study. Participants Fischer 344 rats retina. Methods Optic nerve of rats were crushed 5 days before retinal explant culture, and culture plate was coated with poly-lysine and laminin before culture. Retinas were dissected out from eye cups and cut into 8 pieces followed by sticking onto the coated wells with retinal ganglion cell layer downward. Retinal pieces were incubated in neurobasal-A/B27 for 7 days before examination under an inverted fluorescent microscope. Explants were assigned to the following groups: control, SDF-1 groups with 20 ng/ml, 70 ng/ml, 200 ng/ml, 500ng/ml, 1000 ng/ml, and SDF-1 plus AMD3100 group. Main Outcome Measures Number and average length of regenerating axons. Results Average umber and length of the regenerating axons in control group were 17/explant and 1mm respectively. Promoting effects of SDF-1 was positively correlated to its concentrations. SDF-1 with middle and high concentration enhanced the axonal regeneration by 2-3 folds. The promoting effect of SDf-1 was reduced by half when adding the receptor inhibitor AMD3100. Conclusions SDF-1 has promoting effects on axonal regeneration of retinal ganglion cells in retinal explants and has dose-response. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21: 256-260)
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    Clinical analysis of 49 cases with intraocular lens dislocation
    WANG Hai-Yan, Pang-Xiu-Qin, He-Lei, PEI Xue-Ting, WANG Shao-Li, LU Hai
    Ophthalmology in China    2012, 21 (1): 47-51.  
    Abstract3868)      PDF(pc) (2525KB)(5709)       Save
     Objective To discuss the clinical characteristics of intraocular lens (IOL) dislocation. Design Retrospective cases series. Participants 49 eyes (49 cases) of intraocular lens dislocation in Beijing Tongren Hospital from 2004 to 2011. Methods Clinical data of intraocular lens dislocation were reviewed retrospectively. Main Outcome Measures  Age, original disease, history of disease, position and type of intraocular lens, cause, surgical method, and complication. Results Majority of 49 cases of intraocular lens dislocation were cases with surgery of age-related cataract (46.9%) and traumatic cataract (28.6%). 6 cases with dislocation of intraocular lens with ciliary sulcus fixation happened 1 year after surgery. Majority of intraocular lenses dislocated located in vitreous body (53.1%) and “C” loop (89.8%). 75.5% of causes were original disease and surgery. Ciliary sulcus fixation or re-fixation of intraocular lens (47 eyes, 95.9%) could achieve good centration and stability of the intraocular lens. Naked vision of 0.1 or more accounted for 59.6% at 2 weeks after fixation or re-fixation. Conclusion Intraocular lens dislocation is related with original disease and surgery. Ciliary sulcus fixation of intraocular lens is an effective strategy to treat intraocular lens dislocation. But intraocular lens with ciliary sulcus fixation still happens to dislocate. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21: 47-51)
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    The management model of malignant glaucoma with phacoemulsification cataract extraction
    YOU Xin-Ying, Wang-Tao
    Ophthalmology in China    2012, 21 (1): 43-46.  
    Abstract3618)      PDF(pc) (2429KB)(5679)       Save
     Objective To report the feasibility of the management model of malignant glaucoma with phacoemulsification cataract extraction. Design Retrospective case series. Participants 12 cases of malignant glaucoma with cataract after the filtration surgery which were invalid to medical treatment. Methods All 12 eyes were given priority to phacoemulsification cataract extraction and the implantation of posterior chamber foldable intraocular lens combined with goniosynechialysis and vitreous water pocket aspiration. Some relapse cases were performed Nd: YAG laser capsulotomy and hyaloidotomy or anterior vitrectomy. Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) was examined at preoperation and 2 weeks of postoperation besides the routine examination. The mean following-up was 15.8±5.2 months. Main Outcome Measures Intraocular pressure (IOP), central anterior chamber depth (ACD) and visual acuity changes. Results The mean central ACD and IOP before surgery were 0.38±0.17 mm and 31.50±3.50 mm Hg. 5 eyes were cured after the surgery of phacoemulsification cataract extraction and the implantation of posterior chamber foldable intraocular lens combined with goniosynechialysis. Among the 7 relapsed eyes, 5 eyes underwent Nd: YAG laser capsulotomy and hyaloidotomy, and the other 2 eyes which relapsed again after laser treatment were performed anterior vitrectomy. The average central ACD was 2.31±0.37 mm at 2 weeks postoperatively and the mean IOP was 14.60±4.8 mm Hg at the last follow-up. The visual acuity increased or kept unchanged. Conclusions The small sample data in our study shows that the phacoemulsification cataract extraction and posterior chamber foldable intraocular lens implantation may be a first alternative in treating malignant glaucoma which is invalid to medical treatment. The Nd: YAG laser capsulotomy / hyaloidotomy and the anterior vitrectomy can be performed in the relapsed cases. This step by step treatment model is feasible. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21: 43-46)
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    Treatment of residual angle closure with small pupil and severe flat anterior chamber after peripheral laser iridotomy
    CHEN Hong, CHEN Xiao-Ming, ZHANG Xiu-Lan, GUO Wen-Yi, ZHANG Hong, HUANG Yu-Sen, LV Jian-Hua, LI Jian-Jun
    Ophthalmology in China    2012, 21 (1): 24-28.  
    Abstract3931)      PDF(pc) (3675KB)(5714)       Save
    We reported 2 cases of refractory residual angle closure glaucoma patients aged over 50 years with small pupil, severe flat anterior chamber and lens opacification, and more than 5 years after laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) or iridoectomy. The purpose of this case discusion is to pay attention to long-term follow-up of primary angle-closure patient after LPI, to promote personalized treatment for residual glaucoma, and to present our experience of cataract surgery in patients with small pupil and severe flat anterior chamber. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21: 24-28)
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    The advances of the expert consensus and the first-line medications of topical intraocular pressure-lowering agents in glaucoma treatment.
    REN Ze-qin
    Ophthalmology in China    2012, 21 (1): 11-13.  
    Abstract3813)      PDF(pc) (1408KB)(6044)       Save
    There are six main classifications and thousands of all combination schemes of topical intraocular pressure-lowering agents currently available in management of glaucoma. The clinical guidelines have kept renewing in recent years aiming to guide the clinical doctors in their maximum reasonable medical therapy. In the present paper, the selection path of drug application and the expert consensus from 2011 World Glaucoma Congress are briefly introduced, with the target intraocular pressure and the first-line medications as a center. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21: 11-13)
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    Several issues for the diagnosis and treatment of anterior uveitis with increased intraocular pressure
    WANG Hong, SHEN Lin-
    Ophthalmology in China    2012, 21 (4): 228-232.  
    Abstract3041)      PDF(pc) (3399KB)(5762)       Save
    【Abstract】 Some anterior uveitis lack of severe fibrinous exudation and posterior synechiae of iris, such as viral anterior uveitis, Fuchs syndrome and Posner-Schlossman syndrome, can be manifested as persistent or recurrent elevated intraocular pressure, and its treatment is often difficult. Recently, Singapore scholars described clinical features of cytomegalovirus anterior uveitis in immuocompetent patients, and presented a new idea to diagnosis and treatment of the anterior uveitis with ocular hypertension. Though Fuchs syndrome and Posner-Schlossman syndrome have similar clinical manifestations to cytomegalovirus anterior uveitis, and cytomegalovirus infection may be the pathogenesis of the two diseases, whether to join the antiviral therapy for the Fuchs syndrome, Posner-Schlossman syndrome or not, is still a problem worthy of discussion. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21: 228-233)
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    Clinical characteristics of glaucoma associated with retinitis pigmentosa
    YOU Yu-xia, LI Jian-jun, XU Liang, MA Ke.
    Ophthalmology in China    2013, 22 (1): 42-44.  
    Abstract2482)            Save
     Objective To study the clinical characteristics of glaucoma associated with retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Design Retrospective case series. Participants 37 patients (62 eyes) of RP associated with glaucoma and 109 patients (215 eyes) of RP without glaucoma were evaluated in Beijing Tongren Hospital from Aug. 2008 to Sep. 2012. Methods The clinical electronic records and medical records of the participants were reviewed. Main Outcome Measures The classification of glaucoma, corrected visual acuity and intraocular pressure(IOP). Results In 37 patients(62 eyes)of glaucoma associated with RP, there were 9 cases (18 eyes, 29.0%) with acute angle closure glaucoma, 21 cases (34 eyes, 54.8%) with chronic angle closure glaucoma and 7 cases (10 eyes, 16.1%) with primary open angle glaucoma. The percentage of visual acuity below 0.05 of RP with glaucoma and without glaucoma was 58.9% and 33.6%, respectively (P=0.000). The mean IOP of glaucoma with RP was 23.1±14.0 mm Hg. Conclusion In this retrospective case series, RP was associated with primary angle closure glaucoma much frenquently than with primary open angle glaucoma, and their visual impairment was more serious. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2013, 22: 42-44)
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    Burst mode with crushing and chopping technique phacoemulsification in patients with hard nuclear cataract
    WANG Ban-Wei, GAO Yang
    Ophthalmology in China    2013, 22 (2): 94-97.  
    Abstract1974)            Save
     Objective To analyze the effect of a new phacoemulsification technique in the treatment of hard nuclear cataract. Design Retrospective case series. Participants One hundred ninety eight patients with hard nuclear cataract were enrolled in this study. Methods Phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation were performed. Patients were divided into two groups: A, burst mode using a crushing and chopping technique, and B, a continue mode with a divide and conquer technique. Main Outcome Measure Phaco power, phaco time, visual acuity, corneal edema and corneal endothelial cell loss were evaluated at day 1, and 1 week and 1 month postoperatively. Results Average phacoemulsification power in group A and group B were 8.1%±1.3% and 27.0%±3.4%, respectively. Average phaco time was 59.2±5.8 seconds and 256.1±14.5 seconds in group A and B, respectively. The differences were statistically significant (all P<0.001). Endothelial cells loss was 4.5±2.4% and 9.5±5.4% in group A and B, respectively. One day after surgery, 70 cases (68.0%) in group A and 12 cases (12.6%) in group B achieved corrected visual acuity of 0.5 or better. The difference was statistically significant (P<0.001). One day after surgery, 72(69.9%) and 13(13.6%) patients were found to have grade I corneal edema, and 6(5.8%) and 35(36.8%) cases had grade IV corneal edema, in group A and B respectively. Posterior capsular rupture only occurred in one case in group B. Conclusion Compared with the continue mode, phacoemulsification with the burst mode and an effective chop technique may reduce phaco power and time for the treatment of patients with hard nucleus. Burst mode seemed to be more effective with less complications. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2013, 22: 94-97)
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    Application of femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery
    XING Xiao-Jie, TANG Xin, YUAN Xiao-Yong
    Ophthalmology in China    2013, 22 (2): 77-79.  
    Abstract2155)      PDF(pc) (1889KB)(5145)       Save
    Phacoemulsification is the main method for cataract surgery in the world. Femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery gives several surgical advantages over conventional phacoemulsification, including laser capsulotomy, lens fragmentation, clear cornea incisions and limbal relaxing incisions. The benefits such as reduced complication rates and improved postoperative refractive results are being investigated. In practical application, the surgical indication have to be detailed, and speeding up the progress of developing femtosecond laser combine phacomulsification system for cataract surgery is still important. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2013, 22: 77-79)
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    The changes of tear film after femtosecond laser assisted LASIK surgery
    ZHANG Zhe, LU Bin, MAO Wei
    Ophthalmology in China    2012, 21 (6): 387-389.  
    Abstract2722)            Save
    【Abstract】 Objective To analyze the change of tear film after femtosecond laser assisted LASIK surgery. Design Retrospective case series. Participants The 120 myopic patients (235 eyes) who underwent femtosecond laser surgery from March to June 2011 in Ningbo Ophthalmic Hospital Myopia Laser Center.  Methods The Intralse femtosecond laser was used to produce the corneal flap with an above root. The routine excimer LASIK was performed. The Levofloxacin eye drops were used 4 times/day,  beginning from post surgery 1st day and stopping at one week post surgery.  The 0.1% fluorometholone eye drops were used post surgery, 4 times a day at the first week, 3 times a day at the second week, twice a day at the third week and once a day at the fourth week and then stopped.  The tear film break-up-time (BUT) and Schirmer I test were performed in all patients before surgery,  and at post surgery 10th day, 1st, 3rd, 6th month,  to observe the tear film changes after surgery. Main Outcome Measures BUT, Schirmer I test results. Results At pre-operation, the BUT was(15.00±2.56)s. At post surgery 10th day, the 1st month , the 3rd month and the 6th month, the value of BUT was 8.51± 3.22 s,11.4±2.71 s,14.29±3.46 s and 14.84±3.01 s, respectively. The corresponding value of Schirmer I test was 16.23±3.48 mm, 9.86±3.13 mm, 13.46±2.72 mm, 15.18± 3.02 mm and 16.11±2.84 mm, respectively. At the 10th day, the 1st month and the 3rd month after surgery, these two results were  statistically significantly different compared to preoperations’(all P<0.05); but  at the 6th month, the difference was not significant(P=0.22). Conclusion Femtosecond laser assisted LASIK, at early period postoperatively, lead to an tear film unstability and tear secretion reduction, which created the feeling of dry eye in patients. But the tear secretion and tear film stability  gradually restored at 3rd month after surgery. After 6th month, the tear recovered completely and became stabilized again. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21: 387-389)
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    The short-term effects of orthokeratologic lens on central and peripheral corneal thickness
    DI Zhou, Yang-Xiao, Wang-Hua-Rong, Fang-Bing-Lan, Dai-Zu-You, Wei-Ling
    Ophthalmology in China    2012, 21 (6): 376-380.  
    Abstract2755)            Save
    【Abstract】 Objective To observe the short-term changes of the central and peripheral corneal thickness after wearing orthokeratology (OK) contact lenses overnight. Design Prospective case series. Participants 103 patients (197 eyes) with myopia, average ages 19.0±7.5 years, average spherical equivalent refraction-3.25±0.91 diopters (D). Methods All the patients wore orthokeratology lens overnight. The corneal thickness was measured with a rotating Scheimpflug camera (Pentacam) on different corneal areas, including central, peripheral corneal ring on radius 1 mm, 2 mm, 3 mm and 4 mm. The changes of spherical equivalent refraction and central corneal radius of corneal topography were measured also. All the examinations were done on baseline and 1 day, 1 month, 3 months after wearing OK. Main Outcome Measures Corneal thickness (CT), spherical equivalent refraction (SER), central corneal radius (CCR). Results Compared with baseline, SER reduced -3.01±0.09 D in 3 months and CCR reduced 2.40±0.15 D (both P<0.05). After 1 night wearing, compared with pre-wearing CT increased 5.90± 3.69 μm, 7.54±3.73 μm, 10.52±3.91 μm, 11.76±4.23 μm, 9.33±4.93 μm from the center, to radius 1 mm , 2 mm, 3 mm and 4 mm respectively (all P<0.05).  After 1 month, CT reduced -4.18±3.68 μm and -0.50±3.73 μm in the center and radius 1 mm respectively, but increased 6.39±3.91 μm,9.57±4.22 μm,2.00±5.05 μm in radius 2 mm, 3 mm, 4 mm, respectively. After 3 months, CT reduced -6.61±3.67 μm and -3.67± 3.72 μm in the center and radius 1 mm respectively. But CT increased 3.05±3.90 μm, 6.42±4.21 μm, 5.63±4.94 μm in  radius 2 mm, 3 mm, 4 mm, respectively (all P<0.05). The central corneal thickness changed faster than peripheral corneal thickness in different time (P=0.00). Conclusion The changes of corneal thickness after wearing orthokeratology lenses are consistent with the changes of the shape of cornea. The central cornea becomes thin and the cornea from radius 2 mm to peripheral becomes thick. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21: 376-380)
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    Etiology of frequent-blinking in children
    ZOU Liu-he, ZHAO Meng
    Ophthalmology in China    2012, 21 (3): 145-148.  
    Abstract3455)      PDF(pc) (2443KB)(5740)       Save
    The frequent blinking has become more and more common complaint of children's parents in ophthalmic clinics. It was always dignosed as conjunctivitis or keratitis. In fact, the common causes of pediatric frequent blinking were pediatric dry eye syndrome, refractive error, child Tic disorder, allergic conjunctivitis, and so on. The misdiagnosis of frequent blinking in children not only could delay the proper treatment, but also could make the children suffer from the ocular surface damages related to the eye drops. Therefore, we should thoroughly learn the underlying causes of frequent blinking in children in order to give the proper treatment in time.
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