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    25 November 2012, Volume 21 Issue 6
    Reacquaint the highlight of orthokeratology
    XIE Pei-Ying
    2012, 21(6):  361-365. 
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    【Abstract】 In recent 10 years orthokeratology developed rapidly. Through continuous wearing highly oxygen transmissible material reverse geometric special designed ortho-K contact lenses, myopic control treatment for youth has made significant clinical effect, which got highly recognition in optometry field both in domestic and abroad. This paper covered from the exact curative effect of orthokeratology to myopia control, to orthokeratology mechanism research, to the effect of ortho-K contact lens wearing on corneal thickness and corneal endothelial cells, and the effects on biological mechanics, intraocular pressure, anterior chamber changes, to orthokeratology complications, introducing orthokeratology new developments, hoping to draw continued professional high attention. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21: 361-365)
    Treatment of restrictive strabismus in thyroid associated ophthalmopathy
    AI Li-Kun
    2012, 21(6):  367-370. 
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    【Abstract】 Restrictive strabismus which due to thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) is challenging to a surgeon as well as related medical team. With help of optometrist or orthoptist, Fresnel prism can be used at active stage. Usually surgery should be scheduled at least 6 months after the deviation becomes stable, unless high intraocular pressure or visual field defect was detected. Surgical release of surrounding fibrotic tissue (both orbit side and globe side) should be done thoroughly before the muscle recession. Mild under-correction right after the surgery is suggested in most cases, except restricted hypertropia. In terms of long term result, most patients achieved single vision at primary and down gaze. Even though some prophylactic approach had been applied during the inferior rectus recession, post-operation lower lid retraction still occurred occasionally, which require further study. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21: 367-370)
    The long-term effectiveness of orthokeratology for myopia treatment
    GUO Xi, Yang-Li-Na, XIE Pei-Ying
    2012, 21(6):  371-374. 
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    【Abstract】 Objective To assess the effectiveness of long-term orthokeratology (Orhto-K, OK)  for myopia  treatment in youth. Design Retrospective case series. Participants 30 young myopia patients. Methods During 2000 to 2005, 30 patients (60 eyes) in the BeiYi Optometry & Ophthalmology Center had been  prescribed with  the Ortho-K contact lens and wore it more than seven years. The refraction, visual acuity, corneal curvature, axial length, anterior chamber depth and lens thickness were examined pre-wearing and post-wearing OK lens at six months, one year, three years, five years and seven years. Main Outcome Measures Refraction (spherical and cylinelrical), uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), corrected visual acuity (CVA), average K value, axial length, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness. Results At post-wearing OK lens six months, UCVA had been significantly improved from 4.26±0.28 to 4.71±0.36 (P=0.00), and average K value of corneal curvature had been apparently flattened from 43.66±1.85 D to 42.41±1.66 D(P=0.00). Refraction had been significantly decreased from -4.76±2.20 D to -2.06±2.90 D (P=0.00). From six months to seven years, the UCVA, refraction and average K value maintained stable (4.70, -2.80 D, 42.40 D). During the entire seven years, the axial length had slowly increased from 25.59±1.07 mm to 26.28±1.44 mm. Conclusions In generally, scientific and standardized long-term Orthokeratology wearing would be effective for controlling myopia and increase of axial length and  improving naked vision. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21: 371-374)
    The short-term effects of orthokeratologic lens on central and peripheral corneal thickness
    DI Zhou, Yang-Xiao, Wang-Hua-Rong, Fang-Bing-Lan, Dai-Zu-You, Wei-Ling
    2012, 21(6):  376-380. 
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    【Abstract】 Objective To observe the short-term changes of the central and peripheral corneal thickness after wearing orthokeratology (OK) contact lenses overnight. Design Prospective case series. Participants 103 patients (197 eyes) with myopia, average ages 19.0±7.5 years, average spherical equivalent refraction-3.25±0.91 diopters (D). Methods All the patients wore orthokeratology lens overnight. The corneal thickness was measured with a rotating Scheimpflug camera (Pentacam) on different corneal areas, including central, peripheral corneal ring on radius 1 mm, 2 mm, 3 mm and 4 mm. The changes of spherical equivalent refraction and central corneal radius of corneal topography were measured also. All the examinations were done on baseline and 1 day, 1 month, 3 months after wearing OK. Main Outcome Measures Corneal thickness (CT), spherical equivalent refraction (SER), central corneal radius (CCR). Results Compared with baseline, SER reduced -3.01±0.09 D in 3 months and CCR reduced 2.40±0.15 D (both P<0.05). After 1 night wearing, compared with pre-wearing CT increased 5.90± 3.69 μm, 7.54±3.73 μm, 10.52±3.91 μm, 11.76±4.23 μm, 9.33±4.93 μm from the center, to radius 1 mm , 2 mm, 3 mm and 4 mm respectively (all P<0.05).  After 1 month, CT reduced -4.18±3.68 μm and -0.50±3.73 μm in the center and radius 1 mm respectively, but increased 6.39±3.91 μm,9.57±4.22 μm,2.00±5.05 μm in radius 2 mm, 3 mm, 4 mm, respectively. After 3 months, CT reduced -6.61±3.67 μm and -3.67± 3.72 μm in the center and radius 1 mm respectively. But CT increased 3.05±3.90 μm, 6.42±4.21 μm, 5.63±4.94 μm in  radius 2 mm, 3 mm, 4 mm, respectively (all P<0.05). The central corneal thickness changed faster than peripheral corneal thickness in different time (P=0.00). Conclusion The changes of corneal thickness after wearing orthokeratology lenses are consistent with the changes of the shape of cornea. The central cornea becomes thin and the cornea from radius 2 mm to peripheral becomes thick. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21: 376-380)
    The short-term influence of orthokeratology on corneal biomechanical properties
    MAO Xin-Jie, ZHOU Hang-Shuai, LIU Ran, WU Cong-Xia
    2012, 21(6):  381-383. 
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    【Abstract】 Objective To investigate the short term influence of orthokeratology on corneal biomechanical properties. Design Prospective case series. Participants 30 eyes of 15 subjects with -1.50~-6.00 D myopia. Methods All subjects wore overnight orthokeratology for 1 night. Corneal resistance factor (CRF) and corneal hysteresis (CH) were measured with ocular response analyzer and corneal thickness and corneal curvature were measured with Pentacam analysis system at pre-wearing, just after contact lens removal and 4 hours after lens removal. Main Outcome Measures Mean spherical equivalent(SE), keratometric curvature, central corneal thickness (CCT), CH, CRF. Results Mean SE decreased from -3.72±1.82 D (baseline) to -2.12±1.93 D (immediately after one night wearing) and recovered to -2.59±1.98D (4 hours after removed). Keratometric curvature were significantly reduced from 41.95±1.12 D (baseline) to 41.22±1.34 D  (immediately after one night wearing) and recovered to 41.44±40.10 D (4 hours after removed). One night post-wearing, the mean CCT of all subjects were significantly increased from 535.9±34.5 μm to 553.3±36.6 μm(P=0.000 )and recovered to 535.0±40.3 μm 4 hours after lens removal. CRF increased from 10.0 ±1.4 mm Hg to 10.7±1.5 mm Hg in the effect phase(P=0.037)and decreased to 9.6±1.2 mm Hg in 4 hours after lens removal. There was no difference of CRF between pre- wearing and 4 hours after lens removal(P=0.148). There was no significant change in CH throughout the study(P=0.163). Conclusion Corneal biomechanics changed with corneal shape after short-term orthokeratology. The corneal biomechanical measurements can be used as a method observing corneal micro-structural changes after orthokeratology. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21: 381-383)
    The effect of correcting unilateral myopia by Ortho-K contact lens to near stereo vision
    NIU Yan, JI Na, Jiang-Ling-Ling, LI Ning, JIA Song
    2012, 21(6):  384-386. 
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    【Abstract】 Objective To observe the recovery of near stereo vision after wearing Ortho-K (OK) contact lens for unilateral myopia. Design Retrospective case series. Participants Twenty three cases of unilateral myopia corrected by Ortho-K contact lens during October 2009 and December 2011 in Suzhou Eye Hospital were collected. The average age of participants was 12.28±2.41 years. The refractive error varied from -1.25 D to -4.875 D, on average -2.71±1.09 D. Methods The visual acuity, near stereo vision(Titmus) were checked pre-wearing Ortho-K contact lens, and 1 week, 1 month, 3 months post-wearing respectively. Main Outcome Measures Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), refraction and near stereo vision with glasses. Results The mean UCVA was 4.26±0.23, and BCVA was 5.02±0.07 pre-wearing OK contact lens. The UCVA was 4.97±0.07, 5.03±0.08, 5.05±0.06 at post- wearing OK lens 1 week, 1 month, 3 months respectively. The UCVA at post-correction 1 week was significantly lower than pre-correction BCVA (P=0.015). But at post- correction 1 month and 3 months, the UCVA was no significantly difference with pre- correction BCVA (P=0.257 and 0.090 respectively). The higher the unilateral myopia was, the poorer the stereo vision was (r2=0.726, P=0.000). Before correction, 9 cases (39%) had macular fovea stereo vision. Abnormal stereo vision existed in 14 cases (61%), including 8 cases with macula stereo vision, 4 cases with peripheral stereo vision, and 2 cases with stereo vision blind. Compared with pre-correction, macular fovea stereo vision was found in 10 cases (43%), 13 cases (57%) and 17 cases (74%) post-correction 1 week (P=0.50), 1 month (P=0.19) and 3 months (P=0.018) respectively. Conclusion The study indicates that the severer unilateral myopia is, the poorer stereo vision is. Most unilateral myopia patients can get perfect stereo vision after wearing Ortho-K contact lens 3 months. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21: 384-386)
    The changes of tear film after femtosecond laser assisted LASIK surgery
    ZHANG Zhe, LU Bin, MAO Wei
    2012, 21(6):  387-389. 
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    【Abstract】 Objective To analyze the change of tear film after femtosecond laser assisted LASIK surgery. Design Retrospective case series. Participants The 120 myopic patients (235 eyes) who underwent femtosecond laser surgery from March to June 2011 in Ningbo Ophthalmic Hospital Myopia Laser Center.  Methods The Intralse femtosecond laser was used to produce the corneal flap with an above root. The routine excimer LASIK was performed. The Levofloxacin eye drops were used 4 times/day,  beginning from post surgery 1st day and stopping at one week post surgery.  The 0.1% fluorometholone eye drops were used post surgery, 4 times a day at the first week, 3 times a day at the second week, twice a day at the third week and once a day at the fourth week and then stopped.  The tear film break-up-time (BUT) and Schirmer I test were performed in all patients before surgery,  and at post surgery 10th day, 1st, 3rd, 6th month,  to observe the tear film changes after surgery. Main Outcome Measures BUT, Schirmer I test results. Results At pre-operation, the BUT was(15.00±2.56)s. At post surgery 10th day, the 1st month , the 3rd month and the 6th month, the value of BUT was 8.51± 3.22 s,11.4±2.71 s,14.29±3.46 s and 14.84±3.01 s, respectively. The corresponding value of Schirmer I test was 16.23±3.48 mm, 9.86±3.13 mm, 13.46±2.72 mm, 15.18± 3.02 mm and 16.11±2.84 mm, respectively. At the 10th day, the 1st month and the 3rd month after surgery, these two results were  statistically significantly different compared to preoperations’(all P<0.05); but  at the 6th month, the difference was not significant(P=0.22). Conclusion Femtosecond laser assisted LASIK, at early period postoperatively, lead to an tear film unstability and tear secretion reduction, which created the feeling of dry eye in patients. But the tear secretion and tear film stability  gradually restored at 3rd month after surgery. After 6th month, the tear recovered completely and became stabilized again. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21: 387-389)
    Clinical research on the implantation of posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens for high myopia
    WU Jing-Ming, FENG Chen, CHEN Yan-Lu, WANG Hong-Yuan, ZHAO Zhou-Ting
    2012, 21(6):  390-394. 
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    【Abstract】 Objective To evaluate the efficacy, safety and stability of the implantation of posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens for high myopia. Design Retrospective case series. Participants Seventy three eyes of 38 cases with high myopia (-6.00~-24.00 D) who were implanted with posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens in 211 Hospital of the People's Liberation Army, Haerbin from July 2009 to March 2012. Methods The patients were implanted with posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens, 48 eyes with implantable contact lens-myopia (ICM) and and 25 eyes with Toric implantable contact lens (TICL). The follow-up was 6 months. Main Outcome Measures Visual acuity, refraction, inraocular pressure (IOP), cornea, and space between crystals. Results The uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) after surgery varied from 0.15 to 1.0, and was found in 40 eyes ≥0.8 (54.79%). The UCVA of 72 eyes (98.63%) after surgery was better than the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) before surgery. The post-operation UCVA exceeded pre-operation BCVA one row on visual chart in 33 eyes (45.21%), two rows in 13 eyes (17.81%) and three rows in 8 eyes (10.96%). The post- operation spherical refractive error was within ±1.00 D of expected diopters in 54 eyes (73.97%), within ±0.50D in 12 eyes (16.44%). The post-operation cylindrical refractive error was within ±0.50 D of expected diopters in 19 eyes (76%). The post- operation IOP was not significantly different from pre-operation IOP (P=0.197). A transient IOP elevation was found in seven patients (10 eyes) within two hours after surgery. There were 6 eyes (8.22%) had halo at night. There was no axial deviation of TICL and cataractogenesis in any patients. Conclusion Posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens implantation can significantly improve visual acuity in high myopia. It is an effective, safe and reliable method for correction of high myopia with a wide range of suitable diopters. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21: 390-394)
    Binocular vision in cured anisometropic amblyopia
    LIN Nan, WANG Jing-Hui, SUN Sheng-Li, DONG Fang
    2012, 21(6):  395-397. 
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    【Abstract】 Objective To investigate the binocular vision change in cured anisometropic amblyopic children and normal children. Design Retrospective case series. Participants 74 children with anisometropic amblyopia and 74 normal children. Methods Binocular vision of 74 anisometropic amblyopic children with best distance acuity≥0.9 and 74 normal children were tested with synoptophore and stereogram designed by Yan Shao-ming. Main Outcome Measures Simultaneous perception, distance fusion range, distance qualitative stereopsis and near zero disparity. Results (1) Distance qualitative stereopsis in  cured anisometropic amblyopic children was worse than normal children(χ2=11.331,P=0.001), simultaneous perception (χ2=1.855, P=0.173) and distance fusion range (χ2=1.012,P=0.603) had little difference between them. (2) Near zero disparity in cured anisometropic amblyopic children was obviously worse than normal children (χ2=27.759,P=0.000). (3) The milder the degree of anisometropic amblyopia, the more prominent the improvement of the near zero disparity (χ2=17.116,P=0.009). While simultaneous perception (χ2=0.879,P=0.644) ,distance fusion range(χ2=7.930,P=0.094),distance qualitative stereopsis (χ2=2.854,P=0.240) had little difference. Conclusion Anisometropic amblyopia affects the development of stereoacuity critically. The stereoacuity of anisometropic amblyopic children with best distance acuity≥0.9 after treatment is still worse than normal children. The more severe the degree of anisometropic amblyopia, the more prominent the effect of the near zero disparity. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21: 395-397 ) 
    he fusional function in children with intermittent exotropia
    FU Tao, LU Wei, SU Qing, WANG Jing-Hui
    2012, 21(6):  398-400. 
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    【Abstract】 Objective To evaluate the fusional function of the children with intermittent extropia. Design Retrospective case series. Participants Forty-eighty cases with intermittent extropia. Methods The binocular vision of 48 children with intermittent extropia was evaluated by synoptophore and the near stereopsis was examined with stereogram designed by YAN Shao-ming. The values measured from normal children were used as control. Main Outcome Measures Simultaneous perception, fusional amplitude and stereopsis. Results Eight out of the 48 patients had no simultaneous perception, and 34 had the point of simultaneous perception in the negative field of fusion. Eleven patients had no fusion function, and 37 patients had a negative fusional amplitude of 4.97°±2.11° and a positive fusional amplitude of 12.74°± 5.57°, which were significantly different from the normal control (3.52°±0.96° and 24.05°±6.67° respectively, all P<0.05). Twenty-three of the patients had no distant stereopsis and only 2 had the near stereopsis disrupted. Conclusion In the children with intermittent extropia, the negative fusional amplitude is enlarged and the positive fusional amplitude is shrinked, and the distant stereopsis is damaged earlier than near stereopsis. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21: 398-400)
    Assessment of visual acuity with optical coherence tomography after retinal detachment surgery
    LI Bin, DAI Yan, QIAO Gang, LI Na, WANG Ke, BAI Yu
    2012, 21(6):  401-404. 
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    【Abstract】 Objective To observe macular structure with  optical coherence tomography(OCT) and analyze its relation with change of visual acuity in patients undergone scleral buckling surgery for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Design Retrospective case series. Participants 41 patients (41 eyes) from Mianyang Cental Hospital undergone scleral buckling surgery for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment involving macular. Method Best corrected visual acuity(BCVA), fundus examination and OCT were performed in post-sugery 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 12 months. On post-surgery 9 months, BCVA, fundus and OCT were carried out to those patients whose sub-retinal fluid was completely absorbed showed by OCT examination on post-surgery 6 months. Main Outcome Measures BCVA and OCT findings. Results (1) BCVA ≥0.3 was found in 3 eyes (7.32%), 8 eyes (19.51%), 22 eyes (53.66%), 28 eyes (68.29%) and 31 eyes (75.61%) in post-surgery 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 12 months respectively. Sub-retinal fluid was found completely absorbed by OCT in 2 eyes (4.88%), 11 eyes (26.83%), 21 eyes (51.22%), 37 eyes (90.24%) and 40 eyes (97.56%) respectively. (2) BCVA improved more than 2 lines than last examinotion when OCT showed sub-retinal fluid completely absorbed was found in 35 eyes  (85.37%) (P=0.008). For 37 eyes whose sub-retinal fluid was completely absorbed in post-surgery 6 months after surgery, BCVA was improved more than 2 lines in 22 eyes (59.46%) within 1 month to 3 months thereafter, and none of them improved more than 1 line after 3 months thereafter (P=0.032). Conclusion OCT examinatin is a good method to  determine anatomical  restoration  of macular. Vision improvement can be reached mostly within 3 months after anatomical restoration of macular. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21: 401-404)
    Clinical analysis of 32 cases of cytomegalovirus retinitis with AIDS
    CHEN Chao, GUO Chun-Gang, XIE Lian-Yong, LING Yu
    2012, 21(6):  405-408. 
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    【Abstract】 Objective To investigate characteristics of cytomegalovirus retinitis and immune recovery uveitis in AIDS patients.Design Retrospective cases series. Participants 32 patients with active cytomegalovirus retinitis in Department of Ophthalmology, Beijing You’an Hospital. Methods All 32 patients were evaluated with general and ophthalmic examinations and the clinical characteristics were analyzed. 32 patients underwent ophthalmologic examinations that included visual acuity, anterior segment, fundus examinations, fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) and immunology related examinations. Main Outcome Measures Vision acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP), fundus examinations and CD4+T cell counts. Results In all 32 patients with cytomegalovirus retinitis, visual acuity varied from light perception to 1.0; and their IOP varied from 8 to 16 mm Hg. Eight patients had anterior uveitis. All of the patients had typical cytomegalovirus retinitis. 8(25%) patients whose CD4+T cell counts<10 per/μL had visual acuity varying from light perception to 0.8,3 of whom had immune recovery uveitis. One of them had retinal detachment. 15(46.88%) patients whose CD4+T cell counts were 10~50 per/μL. Their visual acuity varied from finger counting to 0.8. One of them had immune recovery uveitis. One of them had retinal detachment. 9(28.12%) patients had CD4+T cell counts>50 per/μL, none of them had retinal detachment or immune recovery uveitis. 19 patients (including 4 paients with immmune recovery uveitis) had complicated with other opportunistic infections. Conclusion The patients whose CD4+T cell were no more than 50 per/μL were easy to have cytomegalovirus retinitis. The patients whose CD4+T cell counts<10 per/μL were liable to have immune recovery uveitis and other opportunistic infections. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21: 405-408)
    Effect of hydrogen-rich saline on flash-VEP after the optic nerve crush in rats
    YIN Hao, ZHU Ting-Ting, AN Jing, ZHANG Lei, XIA Feng, ZHANG Zuo-Ming
    2012, 21(6):  409-413. 
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    【Abstract】 Objective To investigate the protective effect of hydrogen-rich saline (HRS) on visual function of the rats undergone the optic nerve crush. Design Experimental study. Participants Healthy adult male SD rats. Methods 12 SD rats were randomly divided into the HRS group (n=6) and the control group (n=6). All the left eyes of the two groups were selected as the experimental eyes, and the right eyes served as normal controls. The optic nerve crush model was established by using a non -invasive forceps with a constant clipping pressure of 148 g to crush the exposed left optic nerves (ON) of the rats for 10 seconds at 2 mm behind the optic disc. After  crush model was completed, the rats of the HRS group were given a Hydrogen-Rich Saline treatment by intraperitoneal injection with a dose of 5 ml/kg/d for consecutive  two weeks, and the rats of the control group were given saline by intraperitoneal injection with the same dose. The F-VEP of the rats’ left eye was detected at eight time points: pre-injury, 1 day(d), 3 d, 5 d, 7 d, 9 d, 11 d, 14 d after injury. The changes of P1 wave peak time and amplitude were recorded. Main Outcome Measures The peak time and amplitude of the P1 wave. Results At the first day after injury, the peak time of the P1 wave in both groups(88.61±2.81 ms and 88.33±1.51 ms in the HRS group and the control group respectively)were significantly extended compared to the pre-injury (72.45±1.47 ms and 72.44±1.03 ms in the HRS group and the control group respectively). The difference was statistically significant (all P<0.01). On the third day after injury, the peak time of the P1 wave in the HRS group was shortened to (80.28±1.25)ms, and fluctuated at this lever until 14 days post-injury. The peak time of the P1 wave in the control group remained prolonged (88.61±1.20 ms). The difference between the two groups was statistically significant at each time point starting from the third day after injury(all P<0.001). Conclusions Hydrogen-rich saline can improve the extended peak time of the rats after optic nerve crush, and may play a protective role in the visual conductive system. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21: 409-413)
    Significance of pax6 expression in retinal ganglion cells after ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats
    LI Xue-Ying, Kang-Qian-Yan
    2012, 21(6):  414-417. 
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    【Abstract】 Objective To observe the expression of pax6 in retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and its significance after retinal ischemia-reperfusion (RIR) injury. Design Experimental study. Participants Rat model of RIR injury. Methods 30 adult female SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: group 1(n=5) normal control; group 2-6 (n=5 for each group) RIR injury groups (post injury 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 6 weeks and 8 weeks respectively).  The intraocular pressure (IOP) of right eye was increased to induced RIR model. Pax6 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Main Outcome Measures The expression of pax6. Results The positive rate of pax6 in RGC was (1.28± 1.41) % in control group, (0.99±1.23)% in 1w group, (14.45±2.72)% in 2w group, (50.88±4.73)% in 4w group, (71.00±4.72)% in 6w group and (78.80±4.62) % in 8w group. The difference of expression of pax6 in RGC among these groups was significant (F=1.350, P<0.0001). Compared with control group, the expression of pax6 in RGC was significant higher in 2w, 4w, 6w and 8w group (all P<0.0001), but not significant different in 1w group (P=0.835). Conclusion Pax6 expression was present in every layer of retina after RIR injury. RIR in rat induced activation of endogenous retinal stem cells. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21: 414-417)
    How to guide graduate thesis of ophthalmology writing more perfect
    LI Jian-Jun, LIU Li-Juan, WANG Shuang
    2012, 21(6):  418-419. 
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    【Abstract】 Graduate thesis writing in ophthalmology usually exist some editing problems, such as in mixture of Chinese-English punctuation, confusing and misuse of Chinese characters and phrases, non-self-evident of pictures and forms, errors of reference recording. We carried out editing seminars for graduates, graduate internships into the editorial office of journals, and thesis review and modify trials among inter-graduates, which greatly improve the level of graduate thesis writing. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21: 418-419)