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    25 January 2015, Volume 24 Issue 1
    The use of holistic integrative ophthalmology opinion to solve the bottleneck in the development of ophthalmology
    WANG Ning-li
    2015, 24(1):  1-3.  doi:10.13281/j.cnki.issn.1004-4469.2015.01.001
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    Holistic integrative ophthalmology refers to put pathogenesis, treatment or concrete issues of eye diseases which have been subdivided for long time in system to investigate, research, analyze and adjust according to social, environmental and psychological reality, and make it to be more suitable for eye diseases treatment. This article discusses challenges of ophthalmology, history of holistic integrative medicine, the necesities of development and the establishment of holistic integrative ophthalmology platform in detail. More ophthalmologists are expected to understand, love and build up the holistic integrative ophthalmology, thus promoting the sustainable development of ophthalmology. (Ophthalmol CHN,2015, 24: 1-3)
    Ocular symptoms and signs of neurosurgical diseases
    KANG Jun
    2015, 24(1):  4-7.  doi:10.13281/j.cnki.issn.1004-4469.2015.01.002
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     The relationship between eye and nervous system is anatomically and physically very close. Seven of twelve cranial nerves are straightly correlated with visual afferent or eye movement.Many diseases of neurosurgery are related to ophthalmology, including cranial trauma, tumor, vascular disease, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, hemifacial spasm, hydrocephalus, and so on. Objective of surgery is curing symptoms, saving eyesight and even life. Better understanding of the relationship between eye and brain, together with intimate cooperation, among ophthalmologists, neurosurgeons, neurologists and other specialties, is the foundation to early diagnosis and reasonable treatments. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2015, 24: 4-7)
    Inattention blindness and traffic accident associated with mobile phones application
    SUN Bao-chen, HU Ai-lian, YANG Xiao-hui, ZHENG Yuan-yuan.
    2015, 24(1):  8-11.  doi:10.13281/j.cnki.issn.1004-4469.2015.01.003
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     When people focus on some events, tend to ignore appeared in front of other things, psychologists call this phenomenon as “inattention blindness”. For example, most people who drive have experienced these brief moments of not seeing, that is, of “functional blindness” or “sighted blindness”. Driving with using a mobile phone may cause inattention blindness and impairment of driving performance, can increase the risk of traffic accidents to 1-9 times, most of the reports to 3-4 times. Most researches prove that using hands-free cell phone while driving is not safer than using handheld mobile phone. The use of mobile phones is not only the reason for the occurrence inattention blindness. Other reasons can also cause inattention blindness such as eating, chatting with others, adjusting the radio while driving. They should be fully avoided. (Ophthalmol CHN,2015, 24: 8-11)
    The study on the correlation between fundus changes and the risk of cerebral stroke 
    ZHANG Li, XU Liang, YANG Hua, YAN Fei, WANG Yu-heng, LUO Lin-na, LI Jian-jun.
    2015, 24(1):  13-18.  doi:10.13281/j.cnki.issn.1004-4469.2015.01.006
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    【Abstract】 Objective To explore the correlation between fundus changes and the risk of cerebral stroke. Design Case-control study. Participants  450 patients with cerebral stroke, derived from Beijing Tongren Hospital and Beijing Tiantan Hospital, with mean age of(63.6±10.2) years old. 566 subjects without stroke were selected from Beijing Eye Study, with mean age of(62.5±8.7) years old. Methods All subjects had undertaken 45-degree fundus photography. Two ophthalmologists evaluated those fundus photographs to find out the changes of fundus indicators. Logistic regression was used to analyze the correlation between fundus changes and stroke. Orange 2 analysis software was used to visualize the data results. Main Outcome Measures The component ratio of retinal nerve fiber layer defect (RNFLD), retinal arterial narrowing, arteriovenous nicking, vein dilatation, retinopathy (cotton wool spot, and retinal hemorrhage), optic nerve changes and macular diseases and OR value of correlating to stroke. Results  The percentage of retinal arterial narrowing was 46.3% in non-stroke group and 65.1% in stroke group (P<0.05). The percentage of retinal vein dilation was 12.5% in non-stroke group and 38.0% in stroke group (P<0.05). The percentage of RNFLD was 12.7% in non-stroke group and 38.0% in stroke group (P<0.05). The percentage of retinal cotton wool spot was 1.6% in non-stroke group and 4.4% in stroke group (P<0.05). The percentage of retinal hemorrhage was 4.6% in non-stroke group and 11.3% in stroke group (P<0.05). The percentage of optic disc changes was 7.1% in non-stroke group and 16.9% in stroke group (P<0.05). The percent age of macular diseases was 6.4% in non-stroke group and 13.1% in stroke group (P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that RNFLD (OR=4.163, 95%CI 2.792-6.208) and retinal vein dilatation (OR=3.443, 95%CI 2.333-5.082) highly correlated with stroke significantly. Gender had negative correlation with stroke (males were more susceptible to stroke than females). RNFLD and retinal vein dilatation, macular diseases had positive correlation with stroke. Fundus indicators of retinal arterial narrowing, vein dilatation and RNFLD coexisting are most correlated with high risk of stroke. Conclusions Coexisting of RNFLD, retinal arterial narrowing and vein dilatation highly correlate to cerebral stroke.  Evaluation of the retinal circulation and nerve fiber layer defect in vivo maybe offer a simple method to screening cerebrovascular diseases. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2015, 24: 13-18)
    Longitudinal study of ocular biometry parameters in schoolchildren: two years follow-up 
    GUO Yin1, TANG Ping1, LIU Li-juan2, XU Liang2, LV Yan-yun1, FENG Yi1, MENG Meng1.
    2015, 24(1):  19-25.  doi:10.13281/j.cnki.issn.1004-4469.2015.01.007
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    Objective To assess the change and associated factors of ocular biometry parameters in schoolchildren of Beijing. Design School-based, longitudinal study. Participants 382 Grade-1 and 299 Grade-4 students from two schools participated in the study located in DongCheng District (urban) and HuaiRou District (rural). Methods Baseline study was conducted in 2011, and followed up in 2012 and 2013. Comprehensive eye examinations were same in three years, including visual acuity, ocular motility evaluation, auto-refraction, slit lamp, ocular biometry with Lenstar Biometer and non-mydriatic fundus. Participants were administered detailed questionnaires including nearwork, social-economic parameters and outdoor activity. Multivariate regression analysis was used to analyze the change of ocular biometry, axial length/corneal curvature, refraction and associated factors. Main Outcome Measures Parameters of ocular biometry and refraction degree. Results Mean spherical equivalent was  (-0.55±1.30) D at baseline. Mean axial length was (23.03±0.96) mm. Mean axial length/corneal curvature (AL/CC) was (2.94±0.11). In 2012 and 2013, progression of refraction was (-0.07±0.88) D and (-0.62±1.03) D. Elongation of axial length was (0.26±0.49) mm and (0.32±0.92) mm. An increase in myopic refractive error, after adjustment for age, was significantly associated with less time spent outdoors for leisure (P=0.006), less total time spent outdoors (P=0.04), or more time spent indoors with studying (P=0.005). Elongation of axial length was significantly associated with less total time spent outdoors (P=0.02) and more time spent indoors with studying (P=0.007) after adjustment for maternal myopia (P=0.02). An increase in AL/CC was significantly associated with less time spent outdoors (P=0.01) after adjustment for paternal myopia (P=0.003). Conclusions Progression of myopia, elongation of axial length and change of AL/CC in schoolchildren of Beijing were associated with older age, urban region of habitation, parental myopia, more indoor studying and less outdoor activity after two years follow up. The study provides more evidence in myopia risk factors research. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2015, 24: 19-24)
    Role of macular ganglion cell complex in the diagnosis of primary open angle glaucoma 
    XU Li-juan1,2, Nitter TA2, LIANG Yuan-bo1, JIN Yan-nan3, LIU Xu2, ZHOU Yang1, QU Jia1.
    2015, 24(1):  26-30.  doi:10.13281/j.cnki.issn.1004-4469.2015.01.008
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    【Abstract】 Objective To evaluate the diagnostic value of retinal ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness in open angle glaucoma by comparing with peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness(pRNFL) and their combinations. Design Diagnostic method evaluation. Participants 66 patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and 40 healthy controls who came to yelegesenteret during October 2013 to March 2014 were included in this study. According to the Hodapp-Anderson-Parrish (HAP) grading scale, POAG patients were classified into two subgroups, which were an early group (EG) and a moderate-to-advanced group (AG). By HAP criteria, 34 eyes were included in EG, whereas 32 eyes were in AG. Methods All subjects underwent SD-OCT (iVue 100) imaging: GCC parameters and ONH parameters were measured in each participant. By comparing the area under the receiver operator characteristic curves, the diagnostic abilities of the parameters were evaluated. Main Outcome Measures Thickness of GCC and pRNFL. Results The total GCC thickness showed strong correlation with corresponding pRNFL. Both the total thickness of GCC (EG 81.03±6.37 μm, AG 76.28±9.39 μm) and corresponding pRNFL (EG 80.47± 9.02 μm, AG 69.84± 11.74 μm)  appeared significant reduction in glaucoma group comparing with the normal group (GCC 92.90±6.07 μm, pRNFL 96.98 ± 8.09 μm). The parameter with the best diagnostic ability in EG compared with in normal subjects after adjusting age was the superior GCC thickness (AUC=0.929). The parameter with the best diagnostic ability in AG compared with in normal subjects after adjusting age was the total pRNFL thickness (AUC=0.988). In EG, the combination of total GCC thickness and total pRNFL thickness by statistical regressive method may improve diagnostic ability, but without statistical significance. In AG, the parallel combination of total GCC thickness and total pRNFL thickness may significantly improve sensitivity by comparing with sole total pRNFL thickness. Conclusions Imaging of GCC using SD-OCT (iVue 100) has strong diagnostic ability and was comparable to pRNFL measurement in distinguishing POAG patients from healthy subjects irrespective the severity of POAG. The parallel combination of these two parameters may improve sensitivity in AG. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2015, 24: 26-30, 35)
    Six-months result of minimally invasive phacotrabeculectomy in the treatment of patients with acute angle-closure glaucoma and coexisting cataract 
    HOU Xu, HU Dan, CUI Zhi-li, ZHOU Jian, CAI Li, WANG Yu-sheng.
    2015, 24(1):  31-35.  doi:10.13281/j.cnki.issn.1004-4469.2015.01.009
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    【Abstract】 Objective To study the effect of the application of minimally invasive phacotrabeculectomy in patients with unresponsive acute angle-closure glaucoma. Design Retrospective case series. Participants 15 cases(15 eyes)with acute angle-closure glaucoma and coexisting cataract in Xijing Hospital between March 2011 to March 2013. Methods Preoperative topical corticosteroids, mannitol, methazolamide and paracentesis were applied to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP). A standard phacoemulsification was performed, followed by minimally invasive trabeculectomy with a fornix-based conjunctival flap (5 mm) and small sclera flap (3 mm). Main Outcome Measures Visual acuity, IOP, anterior chamber depth, inflammatory reaction, and bleb-related complications. Results Pre-operative average IOP was (53.13±8.82) mmHg. One week after surgery the visual acuity of all patients was improved significantly, and the IOP was (13.41 ± 3.42) mmHg. 3 and 6 months after surgery IOP was (14.65±4.21) and (15.35±5.48) mmHg, respectively. Inflammation in the anterior chamber subsided postoperatively at one week, inflammatory exudate was almost absorbed, and anterior chamber depth was significantly deeper at two weeks, with an average of (2.72 ± 0.38) mm. All 15 eyes had diffuse blebs or elevated blebs with microcystic changes in the conjunctiva between 3 months to 6 months postoperatively. Postoperative vision acuity was (0.92±0.48) at 6 months. No serious adverse complications were encountered during follow-up. Conclusion Minimally invasive trabeculectomy could reduce tissue injury and improve the safety of surgery, which is an effective method when combined with phacoemulsification in the treatment of patients with unresponsive acute angle-closure glaucoma and coexisting cataract. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2015, 24: 31-34)
    The impact of parental myopia on myopia in freshmen of a university in Beijing
    REN Xiao-lei1, YOU Qi-sheng1, WANG Jun-feng2, TANG Ping3, LIU Li-juan1, HU Ying2, FENG Yi3, WU Min3, XU Liang1.
    2015, 24(1):  36-39.  doi:10.13281/j.cnki.issn.1004-4469.2015.01.010
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     Objective To compare the prevalence of myopia in university freshmen with or without parents myopia. Design A school-based cross-sectional study. Participants 1795 freshmen of grade 2013 in China Geological University (Beijing). Methods Comprehensive eye examinations including visual acuity, ocular motility evaluation, auto-refraction, slit lamp biomicroscopy, ocular biometry and non-mydriatic fundus photography were carried out on all participants. A questionnaire on parental myopia and students study and eye using habits were carried out. Myopia, high myopia and severe high myopia were defined as a spherical equivalent (SE) refraction of ≤ -0.5 D,≤-6.0 D and ≤-8.0 D respectively. One-way ANOVA and Logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the influence of parental myopia status on children’ myopia. Main Outcome Measure The prevalence of myopia, the degree of myopia constituent ratio and OR values. Result The prevalence of myopia high myopia and severe high myopia in freshmen was 92.7%, 21.9% and 6.3%respectively. SE in those with both parental myopia, father or mother myopia and no parental myopia were -5.23±2.93D, -4.43±2.50 D, -3.41±2.30 D(P<0.001)respectively, and the corresponding prevalence of myopia was 91.6%, 93.9% and 95.3%, respectively(P=0.089). Compared with the group of no parental myopia, OR for high myopia was 2.162(95%CI 1.617-2.892), 2.289(95%CI 1.717-3.050) and 2.490(95%CI 1.714-3.618) in father myopia, mother myopia and both parental myopia respectively; and for severe high myopia, the corresponding OR was 4.169(95%CI 2.725-6.380), 4.221(95%CI 2.763-6.450) and 7.052(95%CI 4.386-11.338) respectively. Conclusions In college freshmen, students with parental myopia were more susceptible to high myopia. In those without parental myopia, the myopic degree was lower.  (Ophthalmol CHN, 2015, 24: 36-39)
    The classification and treatment methods of secondary glaucoma in Eye Hospital of Hebei Province in 2006-2013 
    LU Wen-sheng, HAN Dong, YANG Gui-ping, LV Jian-hua, CHENG Su-mian.
    2015, 24(1):  40-43.  doi:10.13281/j.cnki.issn.1004-4469.2015.01.011
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    Objective To investigate the classification and treatment methods of secondary glaucoma in Eye Hospital of Hebei Province in 2006-2013. Design Retrospective case series. Participants 1178 cases (1361 eyes) were hospitalized with secondary glaucoma were analyzed in Eye Hospital of Hebei Province from June 2006 to March 2013.  Method The diagnosis, age and treatment scenario of patients with secondary glaucoma was retrospectively analyzed.  Main Outcome Measures Etiology of secondary glaucoma and constituent ratio. Results  There were 1178 cases of secondary glaucoma, which were divide into neovascular glaucoma, traumatic glaucoma, phacogenic glaucoma, glaucoma secondary to uveitis, glaucoma secondary to keratitis and others. Constituent ratio was 37.0% (436 cases 522 eyes), 12.2% (166 cases 166 eyes), 15.7% (185 cases 201 eyes), 13.6% (160 cases176 eyes), 5.4% (63 cases 71 eyes), 14.3%(168 cases 225 eyes), respectively. In neovascular glaucoma, the diabetic retinopathy and retinal vein occlusion were major etiology. Dislocation of lens caused by blunt trauma (27.7%) and hyphema or vitreous hemorrhage (25.9%) made the larger percentage in traumatic glaucoma. The lens inflation (36.8%) accunted for the larger percentage in phacogenic glaucoma. Surgical therapy was performed in 1204 eyes (88.5%), in which trabeculectomy was performed in 351 eyes (29.2%), Ahmed valve implantation in 257 eyes (21.3%), ciliary body condensation in 131 eyes (10.9%), cataract extraction and filtering surgery was 127 eyes (10.5%), ciliary body photocoagulation was in 122 eyes (10.1%), only removal of the lens was in 84 eyes (7.0%), other surgery in 132 eyes (11.0%). Conclusions In the classification of secondary glaucoma in Eye Hospital of Hebei Province in 2006-2013, the majority is neovascular glaucoma, traumatic glaucoma, phacogenic glaucoma, glaucoma secondary to uveitis. The treatment methods for secondary glaucoma are various based on different etiology. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2015, 24: 40-43)
    The effect of tear film function on the activity of primary pterygium 
    GAO Yang1, ZHOU Jin2, SUN Xiao-fang3.
    2015, 24(1):  44-46.  doi:10.13281/j.cnki.issn.1004-4469.2015.01.012
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    Objective To explore the effect of functional tear film on constitutional pterygium. Design Prospective comparative case series. Participants 53 cases of monocular patients with primary pterygium in Nanlang Hospital of Zhongshan City from August 2012 to February 2013. Method  14 pterygium patients with stationary phase and 39 patients with active phase were included in this study. All patients were examined  with Schirmer test, tear film break-up time (BUT) and conjunctival impression cytology for golblet cell count. Logistic regression was used to analyze associated factors and ptetygium activity.  Main Outcome Measures  Schirmer test, BUT and conjunctival golblet cell density. Results The result of Schirmer test in stationary phase and active phase was (9.43±2.28) mm and (8.67±2.14) mm, respectively (P=0.267). While the result of BUT in stationary phase and active phase was (8.79±1.97)s and (5.05±2.14)s, respectively (P=0.000). The mean globlet cell density (numbers/10 fields) in conjunctival impression specimens in stationary phase and active phase was (38.79±2.83) and (32.74±3.30), respectively (P=0.000). The logistic regression analysis showed that only BUT could affect the activity of ptetygium. Conclusions The active state of pterygium is associated with ocular surface status of patients. The patients of pterygiumms in active phase suffer poor tear film compared with patients in stationary phase. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2015, 24: 44-46)
    Outcome of two IOL implantation options for congenital subluxation of the lens: CTR with IOL vs. PPL with sclera-sutured IOL  
    ZHOU Jun, PANG Xiu-qin, LIU Yi, SONG Xu-dong, WANG Shao-li, HE Lei
    2015, 24(1):  47-50.  doi:10.13281/j.cnki.issn.1004-4469.2015.01.013
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    Objective To evaluate the outcome of two surgical approaches, phacoemulsification combined with capsular tension ring(CTR) and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation vs. pars plana lensectomy/ vitrectomy (PPL+PPV) combined with sclera-sutured IOL implantation for congenital subluxation of the lens. Design Retrospective cases series. Participants 82 cases (146 eyes) of congenital subluxation of the lens in Beijing Tongren Hospital from 2003 to 2008. Methods All cases were divided into two groups. Group 1, phacoemulsification combined with CTR and IOL implantation (Phaco+CTR+IOL) were performed in 40 cases (72 eyes) which range of lens dislocation was less than 120 degree and followed up from 3 weeks to 26 months. Group 2, pars plana lensectomy/vitrectomy combined with sclera-sutured IOL implantation (PPL+PPV+ IOL) were performed in 42 cases (74 eyes) which range of lens dislocation were 120 degree or more and followed up from 1 week to 38 months. Postoperative best corrected LogMAR visual acuity (BCVA), and IOL location, IOP were recorded. Main Outcome Measures Postoperative BCVA, IOP, IOL location and complications. Results In Phaco+CTR+IOL group, 34 patients (59 eyes, 81.9%) identified with CTR-IOL complex dislocation which underwent repositioning surgery. The median interval from CTR implantation to its dislocation was 3 months. The rate of low IOP after Phaco+CTR+IOL surgery was 18.1%, and the rate of low IOP after repositioning of CTR-IOL complex was 20.34%. In PPL+PPV+IOL group, the postoperative BCVA was (0.42±0.20), the rate of low IOP after surgery was 36.5%. IOL capture of pupil was noted in 4 cases (5 eyes), leakage of scleral incision in 2 cases (2 eyes), and temporary choroidal detachment in 1 case (1 eye). Postoperative BCVA between the two groups showed no significant difference (P>0.50). The rate of postoperative low IOP between the two groups showed no significant difference. Conclusions Optimal visual outcomes can be achieved by Phaco+CTR+IOL or PPL+PPV+IOL in congenital subluxation of the lens. PPL+PPV+IOL procedure may reduce IOL dislocation complication, otherwise increase the opportunity of postoperative ocular hypotension over Phaco+CTR+IOL technique. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2015, 24: 47-50, 55)
    Efficacy and safety of tobramycin-dexamethasone eye drops (TobraDex?誖) in controlling post-surgical ocular inflammation in cataract patients 
    WANG Jing, ZHAO Jiang-yue, LU Lu, ZHANG Xiao-dan, ZHANG Jin-song.
    2015, 24(1):  51-55.  doi:10.13281/j.cnki.issn.1004-4469.2015.01.014
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    Objective To demonstrate qualitatively the efficacy and safety of tobramycin-dexamethasone eye drops to control ocular inflammation after cataract surgery. Design Prospective case series. Participants 238 age-related cataract patients (284 eyes) undergoing ultrasonic emulsification cataract extraction with intraocular lens implantation. Methods  Tobramycin-dexamethasone eye drops (TobraDex?誖) were instilled for one month postoperatively. Intraocular pressure, redness analysis with keratography and R-scan software, aqueous flare measurement with Kowa FM600 Laser Flare Meter and foveal retinal thickness with Spectralis OCT were assessed at 1 day preoperatively, 1 day, 1 week and 1 month postoperatively. Main Outcome Measures Intraocular pressure, conjunctival hyperemia and ciliary hyperemia, aqueous flare and foveal retinal thickness. Results 1.75% of a total of 284 eyes reported glucocorticoid-induced ocular hypertension while receiving to bramycin-dexamethasone eye drops postoperatively. Conjunctival hyperemia and ciliary hyperemia were obviously alleviated after local application of tobramycin-dexamethasone eye drops for 1 week and 1 month compared with 1 day postoperatively(χ2=315.35, 190.69, P=0.000), and they were similar to the preoperative level after 1 month. Degree of aqueous flare, 1 week postoperatively was (13.3±7.5) pc/ms, (8.1±5.2) pc/ms after 1 month, is reduced obviously compared with 1 day postoperatively (18.2±9.8) pc/ms (P=0.000). No significant difference was found in foveal retinal thickness which is (254.1±28.4) μm at 1 month postoperation and (249.2±17.8) μm preoperatively. Conclusion Through prospective quantitative detection of fovea thickness, ocular hyperemia, and aqueous protein concentration, the results show TobraDex?誖 instilled for one month to control and prove post-surgical ocular inflammation after emulsification cataract extraction is safe and effective. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2015, 24: 51-55)
    Constitutive proportion of hospitalized cataract patients in the Second People Hospital of Foshan in 2013
    KONG Xiang-bin, HUANG Yu-juan, YAN Shi-gang
    2015, 24(1):  56-58.  doi:10.13281/j.cnki.issn.1004-4469.2015.01.015
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    bjectives To investigate constitutive proportion of hospitalized patients with cataract in the Second People Hospital of Foshan in 2013. Design Hospital-based cross-section study. Participants Hospitalized cataract patients in the Second People Hospital of Foshan in 2013. Method Data of the electronic medical record of cataract cases were reviewed and analyzed. Main Outcome Measures The constitution and distribution of cataract type, stay length and date of hospitalization. Results 3763 cataract patients were hospitalized in 2013, accounting for 58.69% of all patients of hospitalization.  3755 cases were met for inclusion criteria, and there were 1512 males (40.3%). Age-related cataract, complicated cataract, metabolic cataract, traumatic cataract and congenital cataract accounted for 85.9%, 7.3%, 4.3%, 0.6 % and 0.2%, respectively. The gender ratio of female to male in age-related cataract was 1.5:1, metabolic cataract 1.6:1, traumatic cataract 1:3. The average stay length of hospitalization in age-related cataract was (1.3±1.2) days, while traumatic cataract was (2.0±1.4) days. The number of cataract surgery was the least in February (115 cases), while the most in November (434 cases). Conclusions In cataract hospitalized patients in the department of ophthalmology of prefecture-level city of Guangdong, age-related cataract is still the most common type of cataract. For age-related cataract and metabolic cataract patients, women are more than men, while for traumatic cataract men are more than women. There is a significant seasonal fluctuation in the number of cataract inpatients. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2015, 24: 56-58)
    Orbital growth after unilateral enucleation without an orbital implant in children
    KANG Huan-jun1, ZHANG Yin-bo1, JIA Jin-chen1, BAI Ping1, SONG Xiu-jun2.
    2015, 24(1):  59-61.  doi:DOI:10.13281/j.cnki.issn.1004-4469.2015.01.016
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     Objective To evaluate the development of the orbit in patients without eyeball and without orbital implant during minors. Design Retrospective case series. Participants Forty-one cases who had underwent enucleation during minor without orbital implants. Methods the areas of the anophthalmic orbital entrance were measured by CT. Comparisons were made between the anophthalmic and normal sides. Main Outcome Measures Area of the anophthalmic orbital entrance. Results There were significant differences of the area of the anophthalmic orbital entrance (10.67±1.41cm2) between the eyeball-enudeated orbit and the fellow orbit (12.03±1.41cm2) (P=0.000). There were significant differences of the area of the anophthalmic orbital entrance between the eyeball-enudeated orbit and the fellow orbit in the age group of 0~6 years-old and the age group of 7~12 years-old (P=0.000, 0.018) , but no difference in the age group of 13~18 years-old (P=0.09). The difference between the area of the anophthalmic orbital entrance and the area of the fellow orbital entrance is significant difference between weared and without weared the prosthesis group(P=0.004). Conclusion Enucleation during minor can cause orbital growth retardation in the anophthalmic orbit, and the younger the patients had undergone enucleation the more orbital growth retardation. The replacement of the prosthesis with growth is important. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2015, 24: 59-61)
    Picture archiving and communication system in ophthalmology for the management of glaucoma 
    LI Jian-jun, XU Liang.
    2015, 24(1):  61-63.  doi:10.13281/j.cnki.issn.1004-4469.2015.01.020
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    Ophthalmic picture archiving and communication system (PACS) in Beijing Tongren Hospital,  Hospital Management System in Ophthalmology, can put different eye examination equipments into a network, make glaucoma examination images and reports permanently stored, protect the network security and the privacy of patients with authorization and password confidential combination way. Doctors in the consulting room or in outside of hospital can view and search present or past eye examination images and medical records of patients visited on internet or intranet at real time. Patients can check their own eye images data on “personal health records” on internet. Ophthalmic PACS in Beijing Tongren Hospital has brought great benefits for the improvement of diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma patients, especially as a chronic disease management, and has pay an important role in glaucoma teaching and scientific research. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2015, 24: 61-63)
    Training pattern of ocular trauma diseases for residents
    ZHOU Dan, HE Lei, LU Hai.
    2015, 24(1):  67-69.  doi:10. 13281/j. cnki. issn.1004-4469. 2015. 01. 019
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    As common disease in ophthalmology, ocular trauma is not easy for residents to accomplish their special course during training. According to different educational and work background of residents,  clinical resource, medical records, operation videos and ward-rounds should be utilized thoroughly. Those were helpful to improve theoretical level of residents as well as practical ability during training. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2015, 24: 67-69)