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Table of Content

    25 March 2012, Volume 21 Issue 2
    Management of congenital and infantile cataract
    HUANG Yu-sen
    2012, 21(2):  73-78. 
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    Congenital and infantile cataracts produce deprivation amblyopia and can thus cause lifelong visual impairment. Successful management is dependent on early diagnosis and referral for surgery when indicated. Accurate optical rehabilitation, amblyopia treatment and postoperative supervision are very essential for prognosis. Perioperative routine examination should be emphasized and need specification. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21: 73-78)
    Correct understanding and application of micro-incision cataract phacoemulsification technique
    SONG Hui, TANG Xin
    2012, 21(2):  79-81. 
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    Advantages of micro-incision cataract surgery include less tissue damage, faster wound healing, smaller surgery-induced astigmatism and smaller influence on corneal aberrations. But as the surgical incision becomes smaller and smaller, clinical surgical operations change correspondingly, such as improvement in capsulorhexis, update of surgical instruments and phacoemulsification machine, selection of IOL and handling with hard nuclear cataract, etc. So it is important to balance the surgical incisions and security of surgical procedures and to choose the technique of phacoemulsification based on the severity of cataract and the type of IOL. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21: 79-81)
    A study on the management of dislocated capsular tension rings
    SHI Xiang-Yu, PANG Xiu-Qin, HE Lei, LU Hai, WANG Shao-Li
    2012, 21(2):  82-85. 
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    Objective To evaluate the treatment efficacy of dislocated capsular tension rings (CTR). Design Retrospective cases series. Participants 11 cases (11 eyes) of complete CTR dislocation underwent surgical management were evaluated retrospectively in Beijing Tongren Hospital from March 2006 to February 2011. Methods All the 11 cases were given to vitrectomy and removed the dislocated capsular tension rings. Then procedures for repairing were pertormed including scleral suture fixation of the IOL haptics or the CTR through the complex (7 cases), iris fixation of the IOL (1 case), or silicone oil tamponade (3 cases), respectively. The follow-up period varied from 5 to 32 months. Main Outcome Measures Visual acuity, intraocular pressure, IOL location and surgical complications. Results The dislocated CTR was removed successfully in all 11 cases. Of the 11 patients, 8 had intraocular lens implantation, 3 had silicone oil tamponade. At the last follow-up after surgery, the visual acuity was 0.3 ~0.6 in 4 eyes, 0.1~0.2 in 4 eyes , and less than 0.1 in 2 eyes, one patient (1 eye) incapability for visual acuity assessent. On postoperative day 2 to 5, ocular hypertension occurred in 5 eyes (ranging from 25 to 51 mm Hg). The intraocular pressure returned to normal with medications in 4 eyes and transscleral cyclophotocoagulation in 1 eye, respectively. One eye involved hyphema in the immediately postoperation, and absorbed after using medications. There were no postoperative re-dislocation and decentration of the CTR-IOL complex or IOL. Conclusion Complete CTR dislocation may be effectively managed with a pars plana vitrectomy and a scleral suture fixation of the IOL or the CTR. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21: 82-85)
    The short-term efficacy of coreoplasty combined with cataract phacoemulsification
    LIU Dong-Rui, XU Ying-Ge, WANG Lin, ZHANG Lu, LIU Ping
    2012, 21(2):  86-89. 
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    Objective To evaluate the short-term effects of coreoplasty combined with phacoemulsification and intraocular lens(IOL) implantation for pupil abnormality and cataract. Design Retrospective case series. Participants  Pupillary abnormalities combined with cataract patients 59 cases ( 62 eyes). Methods Coreoplasty combined with phacoemulsification and IOL implantation and(or)vitrectomy of anterior segment were performed based on pupil size, shape and iris condition in 2009-2011. All patients were followed up for 3-6 months. Main Outcome Measures Visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP) and iris morphology. Results The preoperative uncorrected visual acuity was better than 0.5 in 7 eyes(11.3%). Small pupil was in 36 eyes (58%). Eye injury with IOP was in 14 eyes (22.6%). Congenital iris coloboma was in 8 eyes (13%). Traumatic aniridia was in 4 eyes (0.06%). IOP increased in 8 people (13%), averaging IOP (32.50±2.50) mm Hg. At the last follow-up, postoperative visual acuity improved in 59 eyes (95%). The  uncorrected visual acuity was better than 0.5 in 23 eyes (37.1%). After surgery in 62 eyes (100%) pupil was round or nearly round, and at central or nearly central position. In  3 eyes (0.05%) pupil was displacement. In 33 eyes (53.2%) pupil diameter was 2.5~ 4.0 mm. Hyphema occurred in 1 eyes intraoperatively. After 1 weeks in 6 eyes existed elevated IOP, averaging IOP (29.0±3.5) mm Hg, of which 3 eyes were performed hypotensive surgery. At 1 month after coreoplasty surgery 3 eyes existed elevated IOP, averaging (24.5±3.5)mm Hg. After 3 to 6 months the IOP in all patietns was normal. Conclusions Coreoplasty combined with phacoemulsification and IOL implantation for the treatment of pupillary abnormalities with cataract patients is safe, effective. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21: 86-89)
    Application of non-perfusion anterior vitrectomy in the lens subluxation surgery
    LI Rui, YUAN Hui-Min
    2012, 21(2):  90-92. 
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    Objective To observe the clinical efficacy and safety of the non-perfusion anterior vitrectomy technique for the lens subluxation during phacoemulsification. Design Retrospective case series. Participants 20 patients (20 eyes) with intraoperative lens subluxation during phacoemulsification. Methods Under the application of viscoelastic into the vitreous cavity and cracks within the lens nucleus, no-perfusion 20 G vitrectomy headmaster from the clear corneal incision was put into the capsular bag for cutting, suction lens nucleus, cortex and anterior chamber vitreous. Viscoelastic was added during vitrectomy until full clearning lens nucleus, cortex and vitreous. Three-piece PC-IOL ciliary sulcus fixation was performed in 17 eyes in which range of dislocation was 2 quadrants or more, and CTR + PC-IOL implantation was performed in 3 eyes of less than 2 quadrants. Main Outcome Measures Visual acuity, IOP, and complications. Results There were no nuclear fall into vitreous, severe bleeding and other serious complications during the surgery. All 20 patients were implanted PC-IOL (dual loop ciliary sulcus fixation). After the first day of the surgery 7 patients with increased intraocular pressure returned to normal with treatment. At 1 month after surgery, compared with the preoperation, vision improved 2-8 lines in all patients. Vision of 10 patients (50%) was 0.5 or more. Conclusion Non-perfusion anterior vitrectomy techniques can better deal with lens subluxation during phacoemulsification, providing a new treatment choice to this complications of the intraoperation. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21: 90-92)
    23 gauge vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy
    MA Kai, ZHANG Feng
    2012, 21(2):  97-101. 
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    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of 23 gauge(G) vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy(PDR). Design Retrospective case series. Participants 105 eyes of 100 patients with PDR from Beijing Tongren Hospital were included. Methods All the eyes were performed 23-gauge vitrectomy on by the same surgeon from January 2010 to June 2011. Surgical procedures including surgical time, times of tool exchanges, visual outcome and postoperative reactions were summarized. Main Outcome Measures Surgical time, times of tool exchanges, visual outcome and postoperative reactions. Results 32/105 eyes were simple vitreous hemorrhage, in which the average surgical time was 52.0±15.2 minutes, and times of tool exchanges were 8.5±2.5. 23/105 eyes needed proliferative membrane peeling without significant tractional retinal detachment, in which the average surgical time was 65.0±12.7 minutes, and times of tool exchanges were 12.4±3.4. 50/105 eyes were tractional and secondary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, in which the average surgical time was 87.0±17.1 minutes, and times of tool exchanges were 15.7±4.1. Silicone oil injection was performed on 30 eyes. There was no dialysis of ora serrata in all the patients. As for intraoperative bleeding episodes, electrocoagulation were performed on 16/105 eyes. No intraocular scissors were used. Visual acuity  of all patients improved 1-3 months after operation. Conclusion 23 G system vitrectomy can be used in both simple and complicated cases of PDR. The advantages based on the unique construction of the vitrector and using of cannulas lead to get high efficiency, less intraoperative and postoperative complications and better outcome. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21: 97-101)
    The application of sub-Tenon's anesthesia in posterior scleral reinforcement
    QI Yue, DUAN An-Li, RONG Shi-Song, SUN Zhen-Yan, LI Si-Zhen, WANG Ning-Li
    2012, 21(2):  102-105. 
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    Objective To evaluate the analgesic effects and clinical application values of sub-Tenon's anesthesia for posterior scleral reinforcement in patients with pathologic myopia. Design Prospective cases series. Participants Forty cases (40 eyes) underwent posterior scleral reinforcement from December 2008 to October 2010 in Beijing Tongren Hospital. Methods Anesthetic drug was 0.375% ropivacaine-2% lidocaine 1:1 mixture. Patients were randomly divided into 2 groups, sub-Tenon's anesthesia group (20 eyes, 0.5~1.0 ml anesthetic was injected into sub-Tenons' space) and retrobulbar anesthesia group (20 eyes, 3.0~4.0 ml anesthetic was injected to retrobulbar space). Anesthesia and surgery were performed by the same doctor. The number of eyes were counted according to the different levels of intraoperative pain and tissue edema, and the surgery duration, intraoperative complications and postoperative symptoms were recorded as well. The effects of two different anesthesia methods were observed. Main Outcome Measures Intraoperative pain, tissue edema, surgery duration, intraoperative complications and postoperative symptoms. Results In the sub-Tenon's anesthesia group, mild pain in 17 eyes (85%), moderate in 3 eyes (15%) and severe in 0 eyes; and in the retrobulbar anesthesia group, mild pain in 16 eyes (80%), moderate in 4 eyes (20%) and severe in 0 eyes. There was no statistically significant difference (P=0.681) in intraoperative pain between sub-Tenon's anesthesia group and retrobulbar anesthesia group. In the sub-Tenon's anesthesia group, mild edema of tissue in 16 eyes (80%), moderate in 4 eyes (20%) and severe in 0 eyes; and in the retrobulbar anesthesia group, mild  edema of tissue in 10 eyes (50%), moderate in 7 eyes (35%) and severe in 3 eyes(15%). Tissue edema of the sub-Tenon's anesthesia group was less significant than that of the retrobulbar anesthesia group (P=0.033). Operative duration of the sub-Tenon's anesthesia group (34.70±2.70 minutes) was shorter than that of the retrobulbar anesthesia group (39.60±3.52 minutes) (t=-4.946;P=0.000). Intraoperative complications and postoperative symptoms of the sub-Tenon's anesthesia group were less than those of the retrobulbar anesthesia group. Conclusions Sub-Tenon's anesthesia can contribute to the success of posterior scleral reinforcement surgery. It is safe and simple to operate with few intraoperative complications. It should be an alternative anesthesia for posterior scleral reinforcement surgery. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21: 102-105)
    Association of polymorphisms in TLR2 and TLR4 gene with diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetic Chinese patients
    SUN Ting, LI Yi-Bin, HAO Lin-Na, XIAO Yuan-Yuan, LI Liao-Qing
    2012, 21(2):  107-110. 
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     Objective To determine the association of polymorphisms in toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 genes with diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetic Chinese patients. Design  Case control study. Participant 205 type 2 diabetic patients with defined duration of 5 years were enrolled(88 males and 117 females),whose mean age was 59.39±9.17 years. Methods According to the examination of opththalmoscopy and fundus fluorescein angiography, patients were divided into DR group (with retinopathy) and DNR group (without retinopathy). DR group had 155 cases, and DNR group 50 cases. 15 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of the TLR2 gene and TLR4 gene were examined using matrix-assisted laser desorption/Ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. Main Outcome Measures The frequency of the alleles and the genotypes, and odds ratio. Results Among the 15 candidate SNP, 5 polymorphisms of the TLR2 gene and 5 polymorphisms of the TLR4 gene were found, and the GG haplotype of TLR4 rs11536889 showed a significant difference (P=0.036) between DR(60.64%) and DNR(52.00%) in their genotypes distribution with an odds ratio of 1.927 (95% confidence interval, 1.057~3.516). Conclusion In the Chinese population, the GG haplotype of TLR4 rs11536889 are closely related to diabetic retinopathy.  (Ophthaloml CHN, 2012, 21: 107-110)
    The short-term lowering intraocular pressure effect of domestic latanoprost and Xalatan in patients with primary open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension
    WANG Hua, WANG Tao, SUN Li
    2012, 21(2):  111-114. 
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    Objective To investigate the short-term lowering intraocular pressure(IOP) effect between domestic latanoprost eye drops and Xalatan eye drops. Design A randomized, open, parallel control study. Participants Primary open angle glaucoma patients(POAG) and ocular hypertension(OHT) patients. Method Forty-two patients with POAG or OHT were randomly divided into two groups: Group A, 28 eyes of 28 patients, received domestic latanoprost eye drops. Group B, 14 eyes of 14 patients, received Xalatan eye drops. The IOP was measured at 8:00, 11:00, 14:00, 16:00 at the first day  the 28th day after the eye drops was given. The IOP was measured at 8:00 at the 7th, 14th and 21th day. The IOP was measured three times with Goldmann tonometer and an average value was obtained. Cornea, iris and lens were observed with slit lamp. Main Outcome Measures IOP. Results The baseline IOP in group A was 23.99±1.54 mmHg. The IOP was 18.04±1.27 mmHg, 17.75±1.43 mmHg, 17.63±1.50 mmHg, 17.49±1.47 mmHg after 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks respectively. Significant difference was found between baseline IOP  and IOP at any time point after eye drops used (F=105.72, P=0.000). The baseline IOP in group B was 24.37±1.55 mmHg. The IOP was 17.91±1.35 mmHg, 17.71±1.39 mmHg, 17.55±1.34 mmHg, 17.44±1.17 mmHg after 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks respectively. Significant difference was found between baseline IOP and IOP at any time point after eye drops used (F=67.85, P=0.000). No significant difference was found between baseline IOP in group A and in group B(P=0.43). No significant difference was found at any time point between group A and group B after 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks(P= 0.76, 0.93, 0.86, 0.89 respectively). No significant difference was found between group A and group B in IOP at the time point 8:00, 11:00, 14:00, 16:00 before eye drops instilling(P= 0.46, 0.44, 0.50, 0.31). And also no significant difference was found between group A and group B in IOP at the time point 8:00, 11:00, 14:00, 16:00 after eye drops instilling (P= 0.89, 0.85, 0.94, 0.98). No abnormality was found in cornea, iris and lens at 28 days after medication in both groups. Conclusion  This smalll sample and short-term study shows both the domestic latanoprost and Xalatan eye drops can effectively lower IOP in POAG and OHT patients, and no significant difference was found between them. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21: 111-114)
    Cyclosporine A nano-particle eye drops prevent the high risk corneal transplantation immune rejection in rats
    ZHANG Hai-Juan, MA Ke, YOU Yu-Xia, WU Yan, XU Qing
    2012, 21(2):  116-120. 
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    Objective To investigate the preventing effect of cyclosporine A nano-particle eye drops on immune rejection after high risk corneal transplantation. Design Experimental study. Participants Fifty Lewis rats as receptor and twenty-five F344 rats as donator. Method Corneal neoangiogenesis was induced by suture method. Rats were divided into 5 groups(group A to E). All the animals underwent corneal penetrating transplantation in right eyes at 7th day after suturing when the new vascular appeared in the middle part of the cornea. The cornea donator were F344 rats. Group A received vehicle eye drops, group B received cyclosporine A eye drops, group C to E received 0.5%, 1% and 2% cyclosporine A nano-particle eye drops respectively. All animals were received the eye drops 3 times a day. Cornea was observed by slit lamp everyday within 14 days and photographs were taken.  Then the cornea was observed every two days until 28 days. The cornea was studied pathologically at day 14 for 2 rats each group.  Main Outcome Measures Cornea survival time (from corner transplantation to the time when RI equals 6), rejection index (RI), pathologically observation of cornea at day 14. Results The mean survival time from group A to E were 7.20±2.93 days, 10.89±3.62 days, 10.50±3.40 days, 11.13±3.94 days and 12.80±4.07 days respectively. Significant difference was found among groups (F=3.20, P=0.022). The survival time at any group from B to E was significantly longer than group A(P  value was 0.031, 0.047, 0.027, 0.001 respectively).  No significant difference was found between group B and any group from C to E (P  value was 0.815, 0.853, 0.255 respectively). No significant difference was found between group C and group D or group E (P  value was 0.716, 0.161 respectively). No significant difference was found between group D and group E (P = 0.333). RI from group A to E were 7.80±1.48, 5.67±1.80, 6.10±1.66, 5.25±1.75 and 4.80±1.23 respectively. Significant difference was found between them (F=5.202, P=0.002). The RI at any group from B to E was lower than group A (P  value was 0.005, 0.021, 0.002, 0.000 respectively). No significant difference was found between group B and any group from C to E(P  value was 0.555, 0.592, 0.241 respectively). No significant difference was found between group C and group D or group E(P value was 0.265, 0.074 respectively). No significant difference was found between group D and group E (P=0.553). The cornea was obviously edematous, thickening, and showing cell infiltration in group A. The cornea cells showed layer disorder in group A. The degree of cornea infiltration was lighter in group B to E than in group A. Conclusion  Cyclosporine A nino-particle eye drops of high, middle, low concentration and ordinary Cyclosporine A eye drops can effectively prevent cornea immune rejection after high risk cornea transplantation. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21: 116-120)
    The MGMT promoter methylation status and its expression level in retinoblastoma
    WANG Yi-Chen, LI Bin, ZHAO Bo-Wen, ZHANG Hao, GAO Fei, ZHANG Zhi-Bao
    2012, 21(2):  121-126. 
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    Objective To detect the methylation status of the promoter of O6 methylguanine DNA meghyltransferase (MGMT) gene and the expression level of MGMT mRNA and protein. Design Experimental Study. Participants 20 paraffin embedded RB tissues, 4 RB cell lines (Y79, SO-Rb50, SO-Rb50/VCR, WERI-RB1). Methods A series of 20 paraffin embedded RB tissue samples and 4 RB cell line were subjected to mehtylation-specific PCR (MSP) analysis to evaluate the methylation status of the MGMT promoter. Further, the expression of MGMT mRNA and protein were studied by Realtime PCR and Western Blot. The clinical data (e.g. gender, age of onset) and pathological features (e.g. the realm of tumor encroachment, neovascularization in iris, NVI) were also collected. Main Outcome Measures Methylation status of the MGMT promoter, mRNA and protein expression level of MGMT, data of clinical and pathological features. Results Among the 20 paraffin embedded RB tissue samples, 12 cases (60%) were partially/completely methylated, the remaining 8 cases (40%) showed MGMT promoter unmethylated. As to the 4 RB cell lines, Y79, SO-Rb50, SO-Rb50/VCR were partially methylated, while WERI-RB1 was unmethylated. MGMT mRNA and protein were expressed in all 4 RB cell lines. The mRNA expression level of WERI-RB1(1.000±0.040) was higher than the other 3 cell lines(Y79,0.617±0.026;SO-Rb50,0.356±0.020;SO-Rb50/VCR,0.389±0.017), the differences among which were statistically significant (P<0.05). The protein expression of WERI-RB1(1.506±0.493) was slightly higher than the other 3 cells lines(Y79,1.388±0.304;SO-Rb50,1.495±0.212; SO-Rb50/VCR,1.406±0.547), the differences among which were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Conclusions There was a comparatively high MGMT promoter methylation rate in RB pathologic samples and cell lines, which had a corresponding effect to the expression level of MGMT mRNA and protein. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21: 121-126)
    The prevalence and associated risk factors of myopia in grade 1 and grade 4 primary students of defined schools in urban and rural regions of Beijing
    GUO Yin, LIU Li-Juan, XU Liang, LV Yan-Yun , TANG Ping, FENG Yi, MENG Meng
    2012, 21(2):  127-131. 
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    Objective To explore the prevalence and associated factors of myopia among Grade-1 and Grade-4 primary students in urban and rural regions of Beijing. Design School-based, cross-sectional investigation. Participants Two schools were investigated. Three hundred eight-two Grade-1 and 299 Grade-4 primary students participated in the study. Methods Comprehensive eye examination including visual acuity, ocular motility evaluation, auto-refraction, slit lamp biomcroscopy, ocular biometry and non-mydriatic fundus photography were carried out on all paticipants. Parents and children were administered detailed questionnaires including general information, nearwork, social-economic parameters and outdoor activity. Main Outcome Measures Prevalence and associated factors of myopia. Results According to different definitions of myopia (Spherical Equivalent, SE≤-0.50 D,≤-1.00 D,≤-1.50 D,≤-2.00 D), the prevalence was 48.1%, 27.9%, 17.5% and 11.6%, respectively. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the prevalence of myopia(SE≤-1.00 D)was associated with age (P=0.003, OR=1.45, 95% canfidence intervals, CI: 1.25,1.67), place (P=0.000, OR=0.20, 95%CI: 0.14,0.29), parental myopia(P=0.000, OR=2.99, 95%CI: 1.83,4.89), outdoor sports (P=0.013, OR=0.14, 95%CI: 0.03,0.65), outdoor leisure (P=0.001, OR=0.33, 95%CI: 0.22,0.49), outdoor activity(P=0.001, OR=0.35, 95%CI: 0.24,0.50), studying indoors (P=0.001, OR=1.37, 95%CI: 1.09,1.72), watching television indoors (P=0.008, OR=0.66, 95%CI: 0.52,0.84). Correspondingly, axial length was significantly associated with higher age (P=0.000; standardized coefficient beta: 0.28), taller body height (P=0.001; beta: 0.18), parental myopia (P=0.03; beta: 0.09) and urban region of habitation (P=0.000; beta: -0.21), less time spent outdoors (P=0.001; beta: -0.16), outdoor leisure(P=0.001;beta:-0.15)and more time spent indoors with studying (P=0.02; beta: 0.10). Children with higher age, urban region of habitation, less time spent outdoors, parental myopia, more time spent indoors with studying had higher prevalence of myopia and longer axial length. Conclusions The prevalence of myopia and axial length were associated with older age, urban region of habitation, parental mypia, more indoor studying and less outdoor activity. More outdoor activity may potentially be helpful to reduce the high prevalence of myopia in the young generation. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21: 127-131)
    The papers published by Clinical Section of Beijing Tongren Eye Center from 2008 to 2010
    TANG Ya-Nan, MO Bin, LIU Wu, WANG Ning-Li, LI Si-Zhen
    2012, 21(2):  132-135. 
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     Objective  To analyze characteristics of papers published by Clinical Section of Beijing Tongren Eye Center and provide suggestions for promoting scientific research of staff members. Design Retrospective study.  Participants The papers published by staff members, as the first author or corresponding author, of Clinical Section of Beijing Tongren Eye Center during January 2008 to December 2010 in Beijing Tongren Hospital. Methods The paper quantity, composition, publishing journals, professional titles of the author and the paper types were analyzed. Main Outcome Measures The paper quantity, composition, published journal distribution, research contents, professional titles of the author and the paper types.  Results  There were in total 533 papers published from 2008 to 2010, among which 88 papers were published on SCI journals (16.5%),  94 papers published on journals of Chinese Medical Association (17.6%) and 304 papers on core journals (57.0%). There were 172 articles published in 2008, among which 19 articles on SCI journals; 195 articles in 2009, among which 29 articles on SCI journals; 166 articles in 2010, among which 40 articles on SCI journals. There were 62 SCI periodicals and 44 Chinese core journals publishing our papers during 2008- 2010. The research topics involved clinical research (244 articles), as well as the basic research (101 articles), specialist nurses (60 articles), teaching management (9 articles). Among 533 articles, 498 articles (93.43%) were achieved by intermediate staff and senior specialists. Conclusion In recent years, the quantity of papers published by Clinical Section of Beijing Tongren Eye Center remained stable. The paper quality kept increasing, which reflect higher level and multi-fields research profiles of our department. Intermediate staff and senior specialists were main contributors for scientific research. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21: 132-135)
    Mechanism and clinical application of new tonometers
    FANG Yuan, PAN Ying-Zi
    2012, 21(2):  136-140. 
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    Intraocular pressure measurement is a main method for evaluating treatment effect and for follow-up for glaucoma, which is  very important in clinical work. Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) and Schiotz’s tonometry are the most widely used methods for measuring intraocular pressure worldwide. In the last 10 years, several new instruments for measuring intraocular pressure have emerged, such as dynamic contour tonometry (DCT), rebound tonometry, Tono-Pen tonometry, Diaton tonometer and the proview phosphene tonometer. Their mechanism are very different. There are also conflicting opinions about their clinical applications. The IOP measured by DCT method has a good correlation with that by GAT, and corneal parameters have no influence to the IOP measured by DCT. But DCT needs more patients’ coordination. Rebound tonometry, Tono-Pen tonometry, Diaton tonometer and the Proview phosphene tonometer are all convenient, which can be used without topical anesthesia and appears to be advantageous for glaucoma screening. However, these instruments are not widely used in clinical work. Further studies are needed to determine whether they are accurate for measuring intraocular pressure in glaucoma patients. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21: 136-140)
    The application of dynamic multimedia technology for education of ophthalmic ultrasonic diagnosis
    YANG Wen-Li
    2012, 21(2):  141-143. 
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    This paper is to determine the value of dynamic multimedia technology application for the education of ophthalmic ultrasonic diagnosis. We recorded the video of ultrasonic images when examining the patients, which was saved as “.avi” files. We also recorded the video of the operation procedure of ophthalmic ultrasonic examination. These video files were showed to the audience when doing education. These videos can give the students in the classroom the mimic feeling of examining patients in examination rooms. With these videos, it’s much easier to understand the teaching contents. The videos are dynamic and real-time showing, which is a special advantage of ultrasonic diagnosis, much more vivid than the static images, such as computed tomography or magnetic resonance image. The application of dynamic multimedia technology can improve the education effect of ophthalmic ultrasonic diagnosis. With its help, the students can master the ophthalmic diagnosis technology more quickly, accurately and vividly. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21: 141-143)